150+ SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Several new variants of SARS-CoV-2 virus have emerged in recent months. The U.K. variant B.1.1.7, the Brazil variant P.1, the South Africa variant B.1.351, and the most recent Indian variant B.1.617 are particular concerning because of their high prevalence. A subset of the mutations identified in the RBD domain of the spike protein occurs in more than one strain, These convergent mutations are of high interest because they may be the cause of the increased transmissibility. Sino Biological has launched RBD and Spike proteins of these variants.

The mutations in these strains also occur in the nucleocapsid protein, which is commonly used as the biomarker in rapid antigen tests. It’s critical to assess whether the current commercial antigen tests can detect the mutated N proteins with the same sensitivity and specificity as their WT counterpart.

By monitoring the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, WHO has published these Variants of Concern (VOCs) to accelerate the globe to make quick response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Characteristics of VOCs can be:
• Increase in transmissibility or detrimental change in COVID-19 epidemiology
• Increase in virulence or change in clinical disease presentation
• Decrease in effectiveness of public health and social measures or available diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics

WHO label Pango lineage  GISAID clade/lineage  Next strain clade  Earliest documented samples  Date of designation 
Alpha B.1.1.7  GRY (formerly GR/501Y.V1)  20I/S:501Y.V1 United Kingdom, Sep-2020  18-Dec-20
Beta  B.1.351  GH/501Y.V2 20H/S:501Y.V2   South Africa, May-2020  18-Dec-20
Gamma P.1 GR/501Y.V3 20J/S:501Y.V3  Brazil, Nov-2020  11-Jan-21
Delta  B.1.617.2    G/452R.V3  21A/S:478K  India, Oct-2020  VOI: 4-Apr-2021 
VOC: 11-May-2021 

Sino Biological has developed a panel of recombinant RBD/Spike and nucleocapsid protein variants which can be used to evaluate the efficacy of the antibodies and vaccination.

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Variants

B.1.617 (India*)
Kappa | B.1.617.1
Delta | B.1.617.2
B.1.617.3

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
B.1.617 40588-V07E16 N D377Y His
B.1.617 40588-V07E20
(under development)
N R203M, D377Y His
B.1.617.3 40588-V07E30 N P67S, R203M, D377Y His
B.1.617 40589-V08B12 S1+S2 ECD D614G, E154K, E484Q, E1072K, K1073R, L452R, P681R His
B.1.617 40589-V08B13
(under development)
S1+S2 ECD D614G, E154K, E484Q, G142D, H1101D, L452R, P681R, Q1071H His
B.1.617 40591-V08H19 S1 D614G, E154K, E484Q, L452R, P681R His
B.1.617 40592-V08H28 RBD L452R His
B.1.617 40592-V08H81 RBD E484Q His
B.1.617 / B.1.617.1 / B.1.617.3 40592-V08H88 RBD L452R,E484Q His
B.1.617.2 40592-V08H90 RBD L452R,T478K His
B.1.617 / B.1.617.1 / B.1.617.3 40592-V02H2
(under development)
RBD L452R,E484Q Fc
B.1.617.2 40592-V02H3
(under development)
RBD L452R,T478K Fc
B.1.617.2 40592-V08H91 RBD T478K His
B.1.617.1 40589-V08B15
(under development)
S1+S2 ECD T95I,G142D, E154K, L452R,E484Q, D614G, P681R, Q1071H His
B.1.617.2 40589-V08B16
(under development)
S1+S2 ECD T19R, G142D, del157/158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N His
B.1.617.3 40589-V08B17
(under development)
S1+S2 ECD T19R, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, D950N,G142D His
B.1.617.1 40591-V08H22
(under development)
S1 T95I,G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R His
B.1.617.2 40591-V08H23
(under development)
S1 T19R, G142D, E156G, del157/158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R His
B.1.617.3 40591-V08H24
(under development)
S1 T19R, L452R, E484Q,D614G, P681R, G142D His

Epsilon | B.1.427/B.1.429 (U.S.A*)

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
B.1.429/B.1.427 40591-V08H17 S1 W152C, L452R, D614G His
B.1.429/B.1.427 40588-V07E9 N T205I His

Alpha | B.1.1.7 (U.K.*)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
B.1.1.7 40588-V07E1 N R203K, G204R His
B.1.1.7 40588-V07E17 N E378Q His
B.1.1.7 40588-V07E4 N I292T His
B.1.1.7 40588-V07E7 N D3L, R203K, G204R, S235F His
B.1.1.7 40588-V07E8 N D3L, S235F His
B.1.1.7 40589-V08B6 S1+S2 ECD H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H His
B.1.1.7 40591-V08H12 S1 H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H His
B.1.1.7 40591-V08H12-B S1-Biotinylated H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H His
B.1.1.7 40591-V08H7 S1 HV69-70 deletion, N501Y, D614G His
B.1.1.7 40592-V02H1 RBD N501Y Fc
B.1.1.7 40592-V08H18 RBD S494P His
B.1.1.7 40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y His
B.1.1.7 40592-V08H82-B RBD-Biotinylated N501Y His
B.1.1.7 40592-V31H1 RBD N501Y rFc
B.1.1.7, B.1.237 40588-V07E3 N S194L His
B.1.1.7, B.1.351, A.2.2 40588-V07E2 N P13L His

Beta | B.1.351 (South Africa*)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
B.1.351 40588-V07E9 N T205I His
B.1.351 40589-V08B11 (under development) S1+S2 ECD D80A, L242del, A243del, L244del, R246I, E484K, K417N, N501Y, D614G, A701V His
B.1.351 40589-V08B7 S1+S2 ECD L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244 deletion, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V His
B.1.351 40589-V08B7-B S1+S2-Biotinylated L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244 deletion, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V His
B.1.351 40589-V08B9 S1+S2 ECD D80A, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V His
B.1.351 40591-V08H10 S1 K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G His
B.1.351 40591-V08H13 S1 NTD L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244 deletion, R246I His
B.1.351 40591-V08H15 S1 L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244 deletion, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G His
B.1.351 40592-V08H59 RBD K417N His
B.1.351 40592-V08H59-B RBD-Biotinylated K417N His
B.1.351 40592-V08H84 RBD E484K His
B.1.351 40592-V08H84-B RBD-Biotinylated E484K His
B.1.351 40592-V08H85 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y His
B.1.351 40592-V08H85-B RBD-Biotinylated K417N, E484K, N501Y His
B.1.351 40592-V02H4 (under development) RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y Fc
B.1.351 40592-V31H2 RBD E484K rFc
B.1.351 40592-V31H4 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y rFc
B.1.351 40592-V31H6 RBD K417N rFc
B.1.351, B.1.427, B.1.429 40588-V07E24 (under development) N T205I,A220V,P13L His

Gamma | P.1 (Brazil*)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
P.1 40588-V07E11 N P80R His
P.1 40589-V08B10 S1+S2 ECD L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I, V1176F His
P.1 40589-V08B8 S1+S2 ECD L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I His
P.1 40591-V08H14 S1 L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y His
P.1 40591-V08H5 S1 T20N, D614G His
P.1 40592-V08H86 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y His
P.1 40592-V02H5 (under development) RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y Fc
P.1 40592-V31H5 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y rFc
P.1 40592-V31H7 RBD K417T rFc

Mink Variant (Denmark*)

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
Mink Variant 40591-V08H8 S1 ΔH69/ΔV70, Y453F, D614G His
Mink Variant 40592-V08H80 RBD Y453F His
Mink Variant 40592-V31H3 RBD Y453F rFc

High Frequency Mutation of Nucleocapsid

Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
40588-V07E1 N R203K, G204R His
40588-V07E11 N P80R His
40588-V07E2 N P13L His
40588-V07E3 N S194L His
40588-V07E4 N I292T His
40588-V07E9 N T205I His

More Variants

Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
40589-V08B14
(under development)
S1+S2 ECD Y145del, H146del, E484K, D614G His
40589-V08B4 S1+S2 ECD D614G His
40589-V08B5 S1+S2 ECD HV69-70 deletion, D614G, D796H His
40590-V02H1 S2 E780Q Fc
40591-V02H3 S1 D614G Fc
40591-V08H11 S1 N234Q His
40591-V08H16 S1 Q677H His
40591-V08H21
(under development)
S1 H49Y, Y145del, H146del, E484K, D614G His
40591-V08H3 S1 D614G His
40591-V08H4 S1 A222V, D614G His
40591-V08H6 S1 L18F, D614G His
40591-V08H9 S1 HV69-70 deletion, N439K, D614G His
40592-V05H1 RBD V367F mFc
40592-V08H1 RBD V367F His
40592-V08H10 RBD R408I His
40592-V08H11 RBD V341I His
40592-V08H12 RBD Y508H His
40592-V08H14 RBD N439K His
40592-V08H15 RBD V503F His
40592-V08H16 RBD A522V His
40592-V08H19 RBD A372S His
40592-V08H2 RBD N354D His
40592-V08H20 RBD A520S His
40592-V08H21 RBD A522S His
40592-V08H22 RBD D405V, Q414A His
40592-V08H23 RBD Q414E His
40592-V08H24 RBD P384L His
40592-V08H25 RBD A348S His
40592-V08H26 RBD F338L His
40592-V08H27 RBD F377L His
40592-V08H29 RBD P521S His
40592-V08H30 RBD T478I His
40592-V08H31 RBD V483I His
40592-V08H32 RBD S359N His
40592-V08H33 RBD K378R His
40592-V08H34 RBD Q409E His
40592-V08H35 RBD I472V His
40592-V08H36 RBD A372T His
40592-V08H37 RBD A344S His
40592-V08H39 RBD A520V His
40592-V08H4 RBD A435S His
40592-V08H40 RBD E406Q His
40592-V08H41 RBD F490S His
40592-V08H42 RBD K378N His
40592-V08H43 RBD N370S His
40592-V08H44 RBD Q414R His
40592-V08H45 RBD S477I His
40592-V08H46 RBD S477N His
40592-V08H47 RBD T385A His
40592-V08H48 RBD T393P His
40592-V08H49 RBD V395I His
40592-V08H5 RBD V483A His
40592-V08H50 RBD A475V His
40592-V08H51 RBD G446V His
40592-V08H52 RBD G485S His
40592-V08H53 RBD G482S His
40592-V08H54 RBD K444R His
40592-V08H55 RBD N440K His
40592-V08H56 RBD E471Q His
40592-V08H57 RBD P479S His
40592-V08H58 RBD A352S His
40592-V08H6 RBD F342L His
40592-V08H62 RBD P337S His
40592-V08H63 RBD P521R His
40592-V08H64 RBD S477R His
40592-V08H68 RBD L455F His
40592-V08H69 RBD K458Q His
40592-V08H7 RBD K458R His
40592-V08H70 RBD N481D His
40592-V08H71 RBD F456L His
40592-V08H72 RBD Y505C His
40592-V08H73 RBD F456E His
40592-V08H74 RBD F486S His
40592-V08H75 RBD N487R His
40592-V08H76 RBD G446S His
40592-V08H78 RBD P499R His
40592-V08H79 RBD V445F His
40592-V08H8 RBD G476S His
40592-V08H83 RBD F490L His
40592-V08H9 RBD W436R His
40588-V07E12
(under development)
N P199L His
40588-V07E13
(under development)
N A220V His
40588-V07E14 N p67S His
40588-V07E15
(under development)
N M234L His
40588-V07E18 N P199L, M234I His
40588-V07E19
(under development)
N A12G, T205I His
40588-V07E21
(under development)
N A119S, R203K, G204R, M234I His
40588-V07E22 N P67S, P199L His
40588-V07E23 N S202N His
40588-V07E25
(under development)
N P80R, A119S, R203K, G204R, M234I His
40588-V07E27
(under development)
N P67S, P199L, M234I His
40588-V07E28 N G18S, A119S, A217S, M234I, E367Q His

Neutralization Efficacy Assay aganist SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Some of the above mutations may have allowed the virus to escape from neutralizing antibodies. To characterize these variants, a new panel of monoclonal antibodies have been launched this month. These antibodies demonstrate differential neutralizing activities against different variants validated by Competitive ELISA Assay. Notably, the B.1.351 and P.1 variants seem to be immune to a subset of the antibodies.

Neutralizing Antibodies WT RBD Recombinant RBD Recombinant S1
B.1.1.7 B.1.351 P.1 B.1.617 B.1.617 B.1.429
40150-D001 ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
40150-D002 ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
40591-MM43 ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
40592-R001 +++ +++ - - +++ +++ +++
40592-R118 +++ +++ - - + + +
40592-R117 +++ +++ - - +++ +++ +++
+: Neutralizing Capacity
The Aforementioned Recombinant RBD :
WT: 40592-V08B
B.1.1.7 | U.K. Variant: 40592-V08H82 (N501Y)
B.1.351 | South Africa Variant: 40592-V08H85 (K417N, E484K, N501Y)
P.1 | Brazil Variant: 40592-V08H86 (K417T, E484K, N501Y)
B.1.617 | India Variant: 40592-V08H88 (L452R, E484Q)
The Aforementioned Recombinant S1 :
B.1.617 | India Variant: 40591-V08H19 (E154K, E484Q, L452R, D614G, P681R)
B.1.429 | California Variant: 40591-V08H17 (W152C, L452R, D614G)
Recombinant Antibody Production