Human Coronavirus Spike

Spike Protein Overview

The Coronavirus Spike protein is a class I viral fusion protein and mediates attachment to the host receptor. The size of the abundantly N-glycosylated S protein varies greatly between CoV species ranging from approximately 1100 to 1600 residues in length, with an estimated molecular mass of up to 220 kDa. Trimers of the S protein form the 18–23-nm long, club-shaped spikes that decorate the membrane surface of the CoV particle. The spike protein is the common target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccines.

The Spike protein can be divided into two functionally distinct subunits: the globular S1 subunit is involved in receptor recognition, whereas the S2 subunit facilitates membrane fusion and anchors S into the viral membrane. S1 makes up the large receptor-binding domain of the S protein while S2 forms the stalk of the spike molecule.

The S1 subunit of the betacoronavirus spike proteins displays a multidomain architecture and is structurally organized in four distinct domains A–D of which domains A and B may serve as a RBD.

The S2 subunit is highly conserved which contains the key protein segments that facilitate virus-cell fusion. These include the fusion peptide, two heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) and the transmembrane domains which are well conserved among CoV species across different genera.

The S gene of SARS-CoV-2 was highly divergent to other CoVs , with less than 75% nt sequence identity to other SARSr-CoVs except a 93.1% nt identity to RaTG13. The major differences in 2019-nCoV are the three short insertions in the N-terminal domain, which may confer to sialic acid binding activity, and four out of five key residues changes in the receptor-binding motif, in comparison with SARS-CoV.

Spike- Receptor Interaction

Studies of coroanvirus spike glycoprotein showed that both the N-terminal region (NTR, domain A in β-CoV) and the C-terminal region of S1 (CTR, comprising domain B, C, and D in β-CoV) can bind host receptors and hence function as RBDs . The CTR of alpha- and betacoronaviruses appears to bind proteinaceous receptors exclusively.
(Ref: R.J.G. Hulswit.Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes.Advances in Virus Research. 2016)

Genera HCoV Types Host receptors
Alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E APN ( aminopeptidase N, CD13 )
Alphacoronavirus HCoV-NL63 ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )
Betacoronavirus HCoV-HKU1 O-ac Sia
Betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43 O-ac Sia
Betacoronavirus MERS-CoV DPP4 ( dipeptidyl peptidase 4 )
Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )
Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )
 

Research Reagents of Spike Protein

Recombinant Proteins

High Purity; Expressed in Insect or HEK293 Cells, closer to Natural Structure; Binding Activity with Host Receptor
Purity:>95% by SDS-PAGE & SEC-HPLC
 
Activity:bind wih ACE2
Cat#:40592-V05H
Purity: >95%
Antigen: Spike S1-RBD
CoV: SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV)
 
Recombinant protein for S1+S2 ECD, S1, S2, S1-RBD are all available.
Cat#   Antigen More
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag Fc
Binding Activity  
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag mFc
Binding Activity bind ACE2
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag His
Binding Activity bind ACE2
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-229E
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-NL63
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity bind DPP4
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag His
Binding Activity bind DPP4
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag mFc
Binding Activity bind ACE2
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity bind ACE2
  S-RBD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag mFc
Binding Activity  
  S-RBD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S-RBD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag rFc
Binding Activity bind DPP4, ACE2
  S-RBD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag rFc
Binding Activity  
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag rFc
Binding Activity  
  S2 ECD

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host HEK293
Tag mFc
Binding Activity  
  S2 ECD

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S2 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type SARS-CoV-2(2019-nCoV)
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity bind ACE2
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type HCoV-229E
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type HCoV-NL63
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type HCoV-OC43
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity  
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Expressed Host Insect
Tag His
Binding Activity bind DPP4
Cat#   Antigen More
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, IHC-P, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, IHC-P, ICC/IF, IP
  S2 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, IHC-P, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Ab Type Mouse MAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Ab Type Rabbit MAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1 Subunit

CoV Type HCoV-HKU1
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, IHC-P, IP
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Mouse MAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit MAb
Application Microneutralizaiton(MN)
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, IHC-P, IP
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, IP
  S1+S2 ECD

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S2 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Mouse MAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S2 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Mouse MAb
Application WB, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S2 Subunit

CoV Type MERS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, IHC-P, IP
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Ab Type Mouse MAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S-RBD

CoV Type 2019-nCoV
Ab Type Rabbit MAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, FCM, IP
  S-RBD

CoV Type SARS-CoV
Ab Type Rabbit PAb
Application WB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IP