Human Coronavirus Spike

Spike Protein Overview

The Coronavirus Spike protein is a class I viral fusion protein and mediates attachment to the host receptor. The size of the abundantly N-glycosylated S protein varies greatly between CoV species ranging from approximately 1100 to 1600 residues in length, with an estimated molecular mass of up to 220 kDa. Trimers of the S protein form the 18–23-nm long, club-shaped spikes that decorate the membrane surface of the CoV particle. The spike protein is the common target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccines.

The Spike protein can be divided into two functionally distinct subunits: the globular S1 subunit is involved in receptor recognition, whereas the S2 subunit facilitates membrane fusion and anchors S into the viral membrane. S1 makes up the large receptor-binding domain of the S protein while S2 forms the stalk of the spike molecule.

The S1 subunit of the betacoronavirus spike proteins displays a multidomain architecture and is structurally organized in four distinct domains A–D of which domains A and B may serve as a RBD.

The S2 subunit is highly conserved which contains the key protein segments that facilitate virus-cell fusion. These include the fusion peptide, two heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) and the transmembrane domains which are well conserved among CoV species across different genera.

The S gene of SARS-CoV-2 was highly divergent to other CoVs , with less than 75% nt sequence identity to other SARSr-CoVs except a 93.1% nt identity to RaTG13. The major differences in 2019-nCoV are the three short insertions in the N-terminal domain, which may confer to sialic acid binding activity, and four out of five key residues changes in the receptor-binding motif, in comparison with SARS-CoV.

Spike- Receptor Interaction

Studies of coroanvirus spike glycoprotein showed that both the N-terminal region (NTR, domain A in β-CoV) and the C-terminal region of S1 (CTR, comprising domain B, C, and D in β-CoV) can bind host receptors and hence function as RBDs . The CTR of alpha- and betacoronaviruses appears to bind proteinaceous receptors exclusively.
(Ref: R.J.G. Hulswit.Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes.Advances in Virus Research. 2016)

Genera HCoV Types Host receptors
Alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E APN ( aminopeptidase N, CD13 )
Alphacoronavirus HCoV-NL63 ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )
Betacoronavirus HCoV-HKU1 O-ac Sia
Betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43 O-ac Sia
Betacoronavirus MERS-CoV DPP4 ( dipeptidyl peptidase 4 )
Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )
Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )
 

Research Reagents of Spike Protein

Recombinant Proteins

High Purity; Expressed in Insect or HEK293 Cells, closer to Natural Structure; Binding Activity with Host Receptor
Purity:>95% by SDS-PAGE & SEC-HPLC
 
Activity:bind wih ACE2
Cat#:40592-V05H
Purity: >95%
Antigen: Spike S1-RBD
CoV: SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV)
 
Recombinant protein for S1+S2 ECD, S1, S2, S1-RBD are all available.
Cat#   Description More
40601-V08H   HCoV-229E Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40605-V08B   HCoV-229E Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40021-V08H   HCoV-HKU1 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40602-V08H   HCoV-HKU1 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40606-V08B   HCoV-HKU1 Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40600-V08H   HCoV-NL63 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40604-V08B   HCoV-NL63 Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40607-V08H1   HCoV-OC43 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40607-V08B   HCoV-OC43 Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40071-V08B1   MERS-CoV Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40071-V31B1   MERS-CoV Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag rFc
40069-V08B1   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40069-V08H   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
HPLC-40069-V08H   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Protein (HPLC-verified)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40069-V08B   MERS-CoV Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40070-V08B   MERS-CoV Spike S2 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40150-V05H   SARS-CoV Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag mFc
40150-V08B2   SARS-CoV Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40150-V31B2   SARS-CoV Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag rFc
40150-V05H1   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag mFc
40150-V08B1   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40150-V08B1-B   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40634-V08B   SARS-CoV Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40150-V08B3   SARS-CoV Spike S2 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H4   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (A435S) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H6   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (F342L) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H8   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (G476S) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H7   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (K458R) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H2   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (N354D) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V05H1   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (V367F) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag mFc
40592-V08H1   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (V367F) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H5   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (V483A) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H9   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (W436R) Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V08B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V31H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag rFc
40592-VNAH   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag
40592-V08B-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40592-V08H-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40592-V27B-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag AVI & His
40592-V27H-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag AVI & His
40592-V02H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein (HPLC-verified)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag Fc
40592-V05H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein (HPLC-verified)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag mFc
40591-V08H3   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 (D614G) Protein (HPLC-verified)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40591-V02H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag Fc
40591-V05H1   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag mFc
40591-V08B1   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40591-V08H-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40591-V27H-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag AVI & His
40591-V08H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Protein (HPLC-verified)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His
40589-V08B1   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag His
40589-V27B-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1+S2 ECD Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag AVI & His
40591-V41H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1-NTD Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag Fc & AVI
40591-V41H-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1-NTD Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag Fc & AVI
40591-V49H-B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1-NTD Protein (Biotinylated)

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag His & AVI
40590-V02H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 Protein

Expressed Host HEK293 Cells
Tag Fc
40590-V05B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag mFc
40590-V08B   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 Protein

Expressed Host Insect Cells
Tag C-His
Cat#   Description More
40021-MM07   HCoV-HKU1 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40021-R028   HCoV-HKU1 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit MAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40021-RP01   HCoV-HKU1 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40021-T60   HCoV-HKU1 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-R723   MERS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit MAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-RP01   MERS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-T30   MERS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-T44   MERS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-T62   MERS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40070-MM02   MERS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
100207-RP02   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
100208-RP02   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
100209-RP02   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-MM23   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40069-T48   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40069-T52   MERS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
100210-RP02   MERS-CoV Spike S2 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40070-MM11   MERS-CoV Spike S2 Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40070-T60   MERS-CoV Spike S2 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40150-D001   SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-T62-COV2   SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40150-MM02   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40150-MM08   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG2a
40150-MM10   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40150-T62   SARS-CoV Spike S1 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40150-D001-H   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D002   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D003   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D004   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D005   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D006   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag rabbit v domain / human IgG1
40150-R007   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit MAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40589-T62   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40591-MM42   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40591-T62   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40591-MM43   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG1
40592-MM57   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

Expressed Host Mouse MAb
Tag Mouse IgG2b
40592-R001   SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit MAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40592-T62   SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
40590-D001   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 Antibody

Expressed Host Chimera MAb
Tag mouse v domain / human IgG1
40590-T62   SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 Antibody

Expressed Host Rabbit PAb
Tag Rabbit IgG
Recombinant Antibody Production