Numerous molecular circuits are involved in cell signaling transduction. Except from growth factors and kinases, transcription factors, second messengers also play important roles in the processes. In neural signaling transduction, Neurotransmitters, transportersand ion channels are all indispensible.
Cell signaling transduction modulate the activity of many different types of transcription factors. One important group of signal-regulated transcription factors are the BZip proteins. The most studied members of this superfamily are the AP-1 (Jun/Fos) and CREB/ATF proteins that control gene expression by binding to the TPA (12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) response element (TRE) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE), respectively……More
Signals received by receptors at the cell surface or, in some cases, within the cell are often relayed throughout the cell via generation of small, rapidly diffusing molecules referred to as second messengers. These second messengers broadcast the initial signal (the “first message”) that occurs when a ligand binds to a specific cellular receptor……More
Chemical transmission is the major means by which nerves communicate with one another in the nervous system. Many different types of neurotransmitters play an important role in the process of chemical transdmittion. The neurotransmitters achieve cell signaling transduction through neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic membrane……More
Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that contain a specialized structure, called a pore, that permits particular ions to cross the neuronal membrane. Ion channels are important in electrical signaling……More
The molecular basis of electrical signaling is that nerve cells maintain ion concentration gradients across their surface membranes, which allows one or more of these ions (Na+, K+, Cl–, and Ca2+) to diffuse down their electrochemical gradients and form electrical signaling transduction effects. The work of generating and maintaining ionic concentration gradients for particular ions is carried out by a group of plasma membrane proteins known as active transporters……More