As a member of cytokine receptors, TNF receptors are typically expressed as trimeric type I transmembrane proteins and contain one to six cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) in their extracellular domain. TNF receptors are involved in diverse biological processes ranging from the selective induction of cell death in potentially dangerous and superfluous cells to providing costimulatory signals that help mount an effective immune response.
Different forms of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) interact with two specific receptors for TNF receptor (TNFR) on the cell membrane to induce a variety of effects. While sharing structural similarities in their extracellular domains, the two TNF receptors differ in their intracellular domain, their signal transduction, and consequently their function.
In addition, tumoral necrosis factor α plays a central role in both the inflammatory response and that of the immune system. Thus, its blockade with the so-called anti TNF drugs / agents has turned into the most important tool in the management of a variety of disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropatties, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Learn more about targeted therapy.