Sensitization to the major cat allergen Fel d 1 is one of the most frequent causes of persistent allergy. The prevalence of cat sensitization ranges up to 15% in some areas of northern Europe and in many cases requires a multimodal therapeutic approach.
symptomatic treatment and avoidance of the allergen are recommended. However, it is not always possible for patients to control cat allergy symptoms by removing the animal from the home and/or undergoing symptomatic therapy. This is due to the fact that Fel d 1 particles are present at levels above the sensitization and asthma symptom thresholds (>1 and >8 μg/g) even in homes that do not have indoor cats. Therefore immunotherapy may be a good method for a treatment.
Several studies are available on sublingual allergy immunotherapy with standardized native cat allergen extracts or synthetic peptides that provide evidence of its effectiveness. Sánchez Palacios et al. reported clinical effects and overall good tolerability in 20 patients who had received sublingual allergy immunotherapy with natural cat dander extracts for 1 year. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, Alvarez-Cuesta et al. reported a significant symptom reduction of 62% during the natural exposure challenge test and significant improvement of the peak expiratory flow in the actively treated group when compared with the placebo group, in which no changes occurred. Addressing the need to cure cat allergy, several studies on synthetic cat peptide antigen have been conducted in recent years to demonstrate the clinical effects with this new method of hyposensitization. Hafner et al. proved that synthetic cat peptides were significantly more effective than placebo.
Research on immunotherapy for cat allergy is going on, which is anticipated to offer more promise for this area.
Nguyen N T et al. A review of allergoid immunotherapy: is cat allergy a suitable target?[J]. Immunotherapy, 2016, 8(3): 331-349.