T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3), which could be identified as a specific cell surface marker of T-helper 1 (Th1) CD4+ T cells, is one of the Ig superfamily members and is preferentially expressed on fully differentiated Th1 lymphocytes but not on Th2 cells. Studies have shown that TIM-3 / HAVCR2 may not contribute to the T cell differentiation but might perform a critical function in the Th1 cell transportation. Galectin-9 & TIM-3 immune checkpoint pathway inhibits Th1 and Th17 responses and induces peripheral tolerance, suggesting an inhibitory role of TIM-3 / HAVCR2 in T cell responses. The soluble form of TIM-3 / HAVCR2 would reduce the antigen-specific T cell responses and downregulate the anti-tumor immunity in vivo by inhibiting the Th1 responses.
Galectin-9 & TIM-3 immune checkpoint pathway immunemediats the tumor microenvironment inhibition by different mechanisms, and plays an important role in tumorigenesis, development, invasion and metastasis. Several studies have found that TIM-3 / HAVCR2 is highly expressed on the tumor infiltrating T cells of the solid tumor, and the high expression of TIM-3 / HAVCR2 is related with the tumorigenesis and tumor development. Our team previously showed that TIM-3 / HAVCR2 expression characterized regulatory T cells in lung cancer tissues and was associated with tumor progression. However, the related research of the expression and role of the TIM-3 / HAVCR2 in non-solid tumors, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare.
Ying Ju et al. T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) mediates natural killer cell suppression in chronic hepatitis B.J Hepatol. 2010 Mar;52(3):322-9.
|Co-inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways||Co-stimulatory immune checkpoint pathways|
|PD1 & PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway||CD40 & CD40L immune checkpoint pathway|
|CTLA-4 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway||OX40 & OX40L immune checkpoint pathway|
|B7-H3 / CD276 immune checkpoint pathway||HVEM & LIGHT immune checkpoint pathway|
|B7-H4 / B7S1 / B7x immune checkpoint pathway||CD28 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway|
|HVEM & BTLA immune checkpoint pathway||GITR & GITR Ligand immune checkpoint pathway|
|HVEM & CD160 immune checkpoint pathway||CD27 & CD70 immune checkpoint pathway|
|LAG3 / CD223 / Lymphocyte activation gene 3 immune checkpoint pathway||4-1BB & 4-1BBL immune checkpoint pathway|
|Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO immune checkpoint pathway||ICOS & ICOS Ligand immune checkpoint pathway|
|VISTA / B7-H5 / GI24 immune checkpoint pathway||CD266 & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway|
|CEACAM1 / CD66a immune checkpoint pathway|
|SIRP alpha & CD47 immune checkpoint pathway|
|2B4 & CD48 immune checkpoint pathway|
|TIGIT & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway|