Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-enzyme

What is MMP (Matrix Metalloproteinase)?

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also called matrixins, , are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that participate in ECM degradation. Under normal physiological conditions, the activities of MMPs are precisely regulated at the level of transcription, activation of the precursor zymogens, interaction with specific ECM components, and inhibition by endogenous inhibitors. TIMPs are specific inhibitors of Matrix metalloproteinases that participate in controlling the local activities of MMPs in tissues. MMPs are excreted by a variety of connective tissue and pro-inflammatory cells. MMPs are usually minimally expressed in normal physiological conditions and thus homeostasis is maintained. However, MMPs are regulated by hormones,growth factors, and cytokines, and are involved in ovarian functions.

Which are the functions of MMP (Matrix Metalloproteinase)?

MMPs play a central role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. MMPs can interact with cell surface receptors and play an intriguing role in apoptosis, showing both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic action. Dysregulation of MMPs has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor.

What are the classifications of MMP (Matrix Metalloproteinase)?

The MMPs comprise a highly diverse family of enzymes, which share several common properties and domain structures. Based on their domain structure and substrate preference, they are traditionally grouped into:

Collagenases

Including MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-18 (Xenopus), can also digest a number of other ECM and non-ECM molecules.

Gelatinases

Including MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B ), digest the denatured collagens and gelatins.

Stromelysins

Including MMP-3 (stromelysin 1) , MMP-10 (stromelysin 2), and MMP-11 (stromelysin 3).

Matrilysins

Including MMP-7 (matrilysin 1 ) and MMP-26 (matrilysin 2 ), digest the ECM components.

Membrane-type MMPs((MT-MMPs)

Four are type I transmembrane proteins (MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP- 16, and MMP-24), and two are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins (MMP-17 and MMP-25).

Other MMPs

Including MMP-12, MMP-19, MMP-20, MMP-21, MMP-23, MMP-27, and MMP-28.

The MMPs comprise a highly diverse family of enzymes, which share several common properties and domain structures.

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