Neural stem cells are immature progenitors both in the developing and adult nervous system. They are considered to replace damaged cells within the CNS as part of the endogenous repair mechanism following an injury. Neural stem cells can be a powerful tool for the neural repair of the damaged brain. Many of the current challenges with stem cell therapies revolve around the problem that stem cells do not survive, migrate, proliferate and differentiate as much as hoped. Understanding the interaction between Neural stem cells and the immune system is essential for the neural stem cell therapy. Growth factors (cytokines) play an important role in determining the inflammatory microenvironment and have also been shown to have effects on the differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of Neural stem cells. The effects of growth factors on neural stem cell fate is more complex than once believed; the distinction between anti-inflammatory and pro- inflammatory cytokines is not straightforward and varies based on conditions such as cytokine concentration and area of transplantation. These growth factors have been shown to alter neural stem cell self-renewal and progenitor cell division and differentiation, which could be mediated by the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway.
Here we list numerous cytokines & growth factors which possess regulation ability on neural stem cells and have detailed introduction for the vital growth factors. The related cytokine proteins, antibodies, genes and ELISA kits in research usage are also available here.
The human interleukin-3 (hIL-3) is a glycoprotein, which served as a key modulation factor of primitive hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. It was also demonstrated that IL-3 enhances human osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in both in vitro and in vivo conditions
Stem cell factor (SCF, also called Steel factor or Kit ligand) is a growth factor that exists both as a membrane-bound and soluble form. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival, and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, melanocytes, and germ cells.
IL-6 was originally identified as a T cell-derived factor, which induced the final maturation of B lymphocytes into antibody-forming plasma cells. IL-6 functions neural stem/progenitor cells by binding to the soluble form of IL-6R and then bind directly to the gp130 receptor.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in the generation of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells from hematopoietic stem cells. It was also identifeid as a neuronal growth factor in the brain and a factor involved in arteriogenesis after brain ischemia.
LIF is capable of maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state through promoting self-renewal or suppressing stem cell differentiation. It has become a standard protocol to use LIF to maintain murine embryonic stem cell pluripotency, whereas withdrawal of LIF allows embryonic stem cells to undergo cell differentiation
FGF-2 is expressed mostly in tissues of mesoderm and neuroectoderm origin, and is thought to play an important role in the mesoderm induction. In recent years, a number of studies have identified fibroblast growth factors FGF-2 as key regulator of a variety of stem cell types.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein that regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. In addition, Erythropoietin (EPO) was reportedly to mediates the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of non-hematopoietic cells through the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR).
In most cell types, TGF-beta signaling additionally controls the expression of a plethora of homeostatic genes whose activity determines cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, paracrine factor secretion, cell–cell contacts, immune function, and tissue repair.
VEGF has the role of cellular survival during bone and cartilage development. In contrast to the paracrine functions of VEGF in vascular development and angiogenesis, the survival of endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells and tumor cells has been linked to intracrine/autocrine functions of VEGF.
BMP4 belong to the transformation growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily. is involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of stem cells, including Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, hematopoieti Stem (ES) cells, Mesenchymal Stem (ES) cells and Neural Stem (ES) cells. So BMP4 play an essential role in stem cell therapy.
• Breton J, et al. Impact of cytokines on neural stem/progenitor cell fate[J]. J Neurol Neurophysiol, 2011: S4.
• Grigoriadis N, Lagoudaki R, Tascos N, et al. Cross-talk between inflammatory cytokines and neural stem cells: a bidirectional relation[J]. 2008.