Interleukin-1 ligand & Interleukin-1 receptor family plays critical roles in initiating and promoting the host response to injury or infection, including fever, sleep, acute phase protein synthesis, chemokine production, adhesion molecule up-regulation and production and release of matrix metalloproteinases and growth factors.
Sino Biological provides quality reagents for research on interleukins and their receptors, including: recombinant proteins, antibodies, ELISA kits, ORF cDNA clones, and more.
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IL-1 family ligand
|7 molecules with agonist activity: IL-1α and IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ|
|3 molecules are receptor antagonists: IL-1Ra, IL-36Ra, IL-38|
|1 molecule is an anti-inflammatory cytokine: IL-37|
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a central mediator of innate immunity and inflammation. These members are classified into IL-1 family ligands, mainly based on similar amino acid sequence, gene structure, and three-dimensional structure.
All IL-1 receptor family members possess three Ig‐like domains in the extracellular receptor segment, while SIGIRR (single Ig domain-containing IL-1 R-related molecule) and IL‐18BP (IL‐18‐binding protein), IL-1 receptor family subtype, contain only one Ig‐like domain.
Apart from IL-1R2, almost all IL-1 receptor family members have an intracellular TIR (Toll-like receptor/IL-1 R signaling) domain. IL‐1R2, although lacking a TIR domain, is considered part of this subgroup due to its high similarity to the IL‐1R1.
Six IL-1 receptor family members (IL-1 R1, IL-1 R2, IL-1 R4, IL-1 R5, IL-1 R6 and IL-1 R7) are located on chromosome 2. IL-1 R3 is located on chromosome 3, IL-1 R8 and IL-1 R9 are located on the X chromosome, and IL-18BP and SIGIRR lies on chromosome 11.
Many cancers arise at sites of infection and inflammation. The IL-1 cytokine family consists of eleven members that play important roles in regulating inflammation.
IL-1 family cytokines activate intracellular signaling pathways by binding to a primary receptor subunit, such as IL-1 RI/IL-1 R1, IL-18 R alpha/IL-1 R5, IL-1 Rrp2/IL-1 R6, or ST2/IL-1 R4, which then recruits an accessory receptor to form the active receptor complex. Signaling cascades triggered by IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36 alpha, IL-36 beta, or IL-36 gamma activate MAPKs and NF-kappa B, leading to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and secondary mediators of the inflammatory response.
Of note, most intracellular components that participate in the cellular response to IL-1 also mediate responses to other cytokines (IL-18 and IL-33), Toll-like-receptors (TLRs), and many forms of cytotoxic stresses.