Demonstration of a potential role of CXCR2 ligands in cancer was established early on with extraction of CXCL1, 2, and 3 from tumor-derived human melanoma cells, and the discovery of evidence of their involvement in melanoma cell growth. At this time, many CXCR2 ligands have been implicated in growth, blood vessel formation and proliferation of tumors as well as in neutrophil recruitment to the site of the tumor. In addition, high expression of CXCR2 has been noted within neuroendocrine neoplasms, such as primary carcinoids in stomach, small bowel, colon, appendix, fallopian tube, ovary, lung, as well as atypical carcinoids of the lung, metastatic carcinoids, pituitary adenomas, pheochromocytomas and medullary carcinomas of thyroid of human tissue. IL-8 (CXCL8) and/or CXCR2 overexpression either by molecular quantification or immunohistochemistry has been noted in other cancers, including renal (localizing to vascular endothelial cells), prostate (localizing to prostate cancer cells), pancreatic (localizing to pancreatic epithelial cancer structures), and nasopharyngeal (localizing to tumor and stromal cells) cancers.
Hertzer KM, et al. CXCR2: a target for pancreatic cancer treatment? Expert opinion on therapeutic targets. 2013;17(6):667-680.