Colony stimulating factor 2 gene (CSF2, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor), as the most upregulated gene of significance for tumor development and invasiveness among those associated with positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5. CSF2 is a cytokine functioning as hematologic cell growth factor that operates by stimulating stem cells to produce granulocytes and monocytes; though STAT5 can be activated by several cytokines and hormones including interleukins (IL-2, IL-3, IL-5 and IL-7), thrombopoietin, erythropoietin , growth hormone, insulin and prolactin, it is the preferred member of the STAT family activated by CSF2. CSF2 also activates at least three signaling pathways: the Janus kinase (JAK) 2/STAT pathway, the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway, and the PI3K pathway.
Lee Y-Y, et al. CSF2 Overexpression Is Associated with STAT5 Phosphorylation and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma. Journal of Cancer. 2016;7(6):711-721.