The androgen receptor is located on the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq12) and acts, upon ligand binding, as a transcription factor. androgen receptor signaling has well documented roles in embryogenesis of both genders and plays an important role in mammary gland development in females. The role of androgen receptor signaling in breast carcinogenesis is seemingly complex and is currently an area of intense investigation. androgen receptor signaling may have a dual role of both inhibiting and promoting cell proliferation. Inhibition of proliferation and cell growth was seen in hormone receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer cell lines, respectively. Tumor growth due to androgen receptor activity was also shown for apocrine breast cancers. In a Phase II clinical trial it was shown that patients with androgen receptor positive breast cancer had a benefit from anti-androgenic therapy indicating that targeting androgen receptor might be a therapeutic option. These results led to many subsequent clinical trials investigating anti-androgen therapy in breast cancers patients, especially in patients where no other targeted therapies were available, as in triple negative breast cancer, and in patients with advanced disease (ClinicalTrials.gov). Therefore, it is of great clinical value to know the prevalence of androgen receptor positivity in breast cancer at all stages and molecular subtypes.
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