IL-1 alpha is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Cytokines are proteinaceous signaling compounds that are major mediators of the immune response. They control many different cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival/apoptosis but are also involved in several pathophysiological processes including viral infections and autoimmune diseases. Cytokines are synthesized under various stimuli by a variety of cells of both the innate (monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells) and adaptive (T- and B-cells) immune systems. Cytokines can be classified into two groups: pro- and anti-inflammatory. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFNgamma, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, are predominantly derived from the innate immune cells and Th1 cells. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5, are synthesized from Th2 immune cells. IL-1 alpha is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in various immune responses, inflammatory processes, and hematopoiesis. It is produced by monocytes and macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed and released in response to cell injury, and thus induces apoptosis. IL-1 alpha stimulates thymocyte proliferation by inducing IL-2 release, B-cell maturation and proliferation, and fibroblast growth factor activity.