Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1b, official symbol TNFRSF1B, also known as Death receptor 5, CD262, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL R2), is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily, and contains an intracellular death domain. This receptor can be activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TNFSF1/TRAIL/APO-2L), and transduces an apoptosis signal. Studies with FADD-deficient mice suggested that FADD, a death domain containing adaptor protein, is required for the apoptosis mediated by this protein. TRAIL R2/CD262/TNFRSF1B was purified independently as the only receptor for TRAIL detectable on the surface of two different human cell lines that undergo apoptosis upon stimulation with TRAIL. TRAIL R2/CD262/TNFRSF1B contains two extracellular cysteine-rich repeats, typical for TNF receptor (TNFR) family members, and a cytoplasmic death domain. TRAIL R2/CD262/TNFRSF1B mediates apoptosis via the intracellular adaptor molecule FADD/MORT1. TRAIL receptors can signal both death and gene transcription, functions reminiscent of those of TNFR1 and TRAMP, two other members of the death receptor family. Defects in TRAIL R2/CD262/TNFRSF1B may be a cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) also known as squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
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