Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1, also known as Tryptophan 5-monooxygenase 1, Tryptophan hydroxylase 1, TPH1, TPH and TPRH, is an enzyme which belongs to the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family. TPH1 contains one ACT domain. Tryptophan hydroxylase catalyzes the biopterin-dependent monooxygenation of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HT), which is subsequently decarboxylated to form the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. TPH1 expression is limited to a few specialized tissues: raphe neurons, pinealocytes, mast cells, mononuclear leukocytes, beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans, and intestinal and pancreatic enterochromaffin cells.The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene is also reported to be associated with suicidal behavior. Polymorphisms of TPH1 may assist in identifying a subgroup of mood disorder patients that is at higher risk for suicidal behavior.