Midkine (MK or MDK) also known as neurite growth-promoting factor 2 (NEGF2) is a basic heparin-binding growth factor of low molecular weight, and forms a family with pleiotrophin. Midkine is a retinoic acid-responsive, heparin-binding growth factor expressed in various cell types during embryogenesis. It promotes angiogenesis, cell growth, and cell migration. Midkine is also expressed in several carcinomas, suggesting that it may play a role in tumorigenesis, perhaps through its effects on angiogenesis. Midkine binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase and the induction of cell proliferation. Midkine is involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development. Midkine exhibited increased expression in the breast carcinomas but showed much lower expression in the normal breast tissue. Thus, it can be used as a breast carcinomas marker.