Interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. The low concentration of a soluble form of IL-6 receptor (SIL-6R) acts as an agonist of IL-6 activity. In the IL-6R/CD126/IL6R system, both a membrane-bound IL-6R and a SIL-6R protein can mediate IL-6 signals into the cells through the interaction of gp130. The resulting IL-6/sIL-6R protein complex is also capable of binding to gp130 and inducing intracellular signaling. Through this so-called 'trans-signaling' mechanism, IL-6 can stimulate cells that lack an endogenous mIL-6R. High levels of IL-6 and SIL-6R have been reported in several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well as in cancer.