Interleukin 1 family member 7, or interleukin 37 (IL1F7 / IL37 / IL-1H4) is a secretory protein belonging to the Interleukin 1 family. IL-1F7 was localized in human peripheral monocytic cells. It has been localized the expression of IL-1F7b protein in discrete cell populations including plasma cells and tumor cells. These data suggest that IL-1F7 may be involved in immune response, inflammatory diseases, and/or cancer. Through constructing an adenoviral vector that allows high-level expression in murine and human cells, it has been demonstrated that the ability of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of IL1F7 to induce an IL-12- and Fas ligand-dependent anti-tumor response. Complete inhibition of tumor growth was observed following multiple injections of IL1F7 in most animals. These results suggest that IL1F7 could play a role in both innate and adaptive immune responses, similar to IL-18. Moreover, IL1F7 could be useful for cancer gene therapy.