Dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), also known as CD209, is a type II transmembrane protein on DCs with a C-type lectin extracellular domain, is capable of binding ICAM-3 on resting T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs, providing the initial contact between these cells during the establishment of cell-mediated immunity. It is not only a pattern recognition receptor but implicated in immunoregulation of DCs. It has an important role in mediating DC adhesion, migration, inflammation, activating primary T cell, triggering immune response and participating in immune escape of pathogens and tumors. DC-SIGN also mediates the capture and internalization of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens by dendritic cells, such as HIV-1, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, Dengue virus, and hepatitis C virus. DC-SIGN is unique in that it regulates adhesion processes, such as DC trafficking and T-cell synapse formation, as well as antigen capture. Moreover, even though several C-type lectins have been shown to bind HIV-1, DC-SIGN does not only capture HIV-1 but also protects it in early endosomes allowing HIV-1 transport by DC to lymphoid tissues, where it enhances trans infection of T cells.