CCL14 has an important biological role in other mammals by evolving under positive selection that has been lost in Ochotonidae (subgenera Pika and Lagotona). CC chemokine ligand 14, CCL14, is a human CC chemokine that is of recent interest because of its natural ability, upon proteolytic processing of the first eight NH2-terminal residues, to bind to and signal through the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) co-receptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Embryo implantation is a complex process involving blastocyst attachment to the endometrial epithelium and subsequent trophoblast invasion of the decidua. We have previously shown that the chemokines CX3CL1 and CCL14 are abundant in endometrial vasculature, epithelial, and decidual cells at this time, and that their receptors, CX3CR1 and CCR1, are present on invading human trophoblasts. CX3CL1 and CCL14 promote trophoblast migration.