NTPDase3 (also known as CD39L3) encoded by the ENTPD3 gene is a plasma membrane-bound ectonucleotidase that can hydrolyze extracellular ATP and ADP. Through its hydrolysis of local extracellular nucleotides, NTPDase-3 affects the availability of ligands that mediate nucleotide signaling.
ENTPD3 is one of the 8 members of ENTPD family: ENTPD1, ENTPD2, ENTPD3, ENTPD4, ENTPD5, ENTPD6, ENTPD7 and ENTPD8. The transmembrane domains of NTPDase 1, -2, -3, and -8 are anchored to the plasma membrane, and their catalytic sites are exposed to the extracellular space. NTPDases hydrolyze NTPs and NDPs, producing the corresponding NMPs as final products. ENTPD1 is primarily expressed in blood vessels, ENTPD2 is primarily expressed in glial cells, and ENTPD3 is expressed at the highest level in the adult brain, pancreas, and other tissues. It is speculated that ENTPD3 may be involved in sleep-wake behavior, the regulation of insulin secretion and feeding, etc.
ENTPD3 is a cell-surface biomarker highly expressed in adult human pancreatic β cells including those from individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cells release ATP and related nucleotides into the extracellular space through exocytosis of the large, dense core insulin-containing granules when stimulated with glucose or other nutrients. The released ATP activates purinergic P2 receptors located on the β-cell plasma membrane and regulates glucose-induced insulin secretion. The level of extracellular ATP is controlled by the action of NTPDase, which can degrade ATP into ADP and finally into AMP. When the activity of NTPDase3 is inhibited, the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP is suppressed, and the accumulated ATP further enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion through the stronger activation of purinergic P2Y receptor signaling.
Sino Biological has developed some high quality ETPND3 proteins and antibodies for pancreatic β cell-related research.
In pancreatic β cells, ENTPD3 is the predominant ectonucleotidase that can regulate insulin secretion. Sino Biological has developed several high purity ENTPD3 proteins. Human ENTPD3 (Cat#: 10909-H08B) can hydrolyze the 5’-phosphate group from the substrate adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP).
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Highly sensitive and specific biomarkers will be very useful in monitoring β-cell function. Sino Biological offers a comprehensive collection of protein biomarkers related to pancreatic β cells.