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What is TGF-beta

TGF-beta Definition

TGF-beta (Transforming growth factor beta / TGF-β) is a type of cytokine that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells.

TGF-beta, is a factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins. The TGF-β family is part of a superfamily of proteins known as the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which includes inhibins, activin, anti-müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein, decapentaplegic and Vg-1.

There are some other names of TGF-beta / Transforming Growth Factor beta, for example, Platelet Transforming Growth Factor; Bone-Derived Transforming Growth Factor; Milk Growth Factor and so on.

References

Khalil N. (1999). TGF-beta: from latent to active. Microbes Infect. 1 (15): 1255–63.
The TGF-beta system — Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology