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p38 delta/MAPK13 Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

p38 delta/MAPK13 Related Areas

p38 delta/MAPK13 Related Pathways

p38 delta/MAPK13 Related Product

    p38 delta/MAPK13 Summary & Protein Information

    p38 delta/MAPK13 Related Information

    p38 delta/MAPK13 Background

    Gene Summary: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is closely related to p38 MAP kinase, both of which can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. MAP kinase kinases 3, and 6 can phosphorylate and activate this kinase. Transcription factor ATF2, and microtubule dynamics regulator stathmin have been shown to be the substrates of this kinase.
    General information above from NCBI
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
    Cofactor: Magnesium.
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine by dual specificity kinases, MAP2K3/MKK3, MAP2K6/MKK6, MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7. Activation by ultraviolet radiation, hyperosmotic shock, anisomycin or by TNF-alpha is mediated by MAP2K3/MKK3. Inhibited by dual specificity phosphatase DUSP1.
    Subunit structure: Interacts with MAPK8IP2.
    Domain: The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases.
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in testes, pancreas, small intestine, lung and kidney. Abundant in macrophages, also present in neutrophils, CD4+ T-cells, and endothelial cells.
    Post-translational: Dually phosphorylated on Thr-180 and Tyr-182 by MAP2K3/MKK3, MAP2K4/MKK4, MAP2K6/MKK6 and MAP2K7/MKK7, which activates the enzyme. Dephosphorylated by dual specificity phosphatase DUSP1.
    Sequence similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily.
    Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
    General information above from UniProt

    The p38 family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) includes p38 alpha (SAPK2a, CSBP), p38 beta (SAPK2b), p38 delta (SAPK4), and p38 gamma (SAPK3/ERK6). p38 alpha and p38 beta are widely expressed p38 isoforms that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, development, and response to stress. p38 delta, also known as MAPK13, is a regulator of differentiation-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes, and been as a regulator of surface epithelia differentiation and apoptosis. p38 delta protein is upregulated in Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) relative to hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) and to normal biliary tract tissues. p38 delta is important for motility and invasion of CC cells, suggesting that p38 delta may play an important role in CC metastasis. p38 delta is expressed in the epidermis, suggesting a role for p38 delta in regulating differentiation. p38 delta is the major p38 isoform driving suprabasal involucrin gene expression and that p38 delta directly regulates ERK1/2 activity via formation of a p38 delta-ERK1/2 complex. Recent emerging evidence suggests that the p38 stress MAPK pathway may function as a tumor suppressor through regulating Ras-dependent and -independent proliferation, transformation, invasion and cell death by isoform-specific mechanisms. p38 delta has important role in promoting cell proliferation and tumor development in epidermis and may have therapeutic implication for skin cancer.

    p38 delta/MAPK13 Alternative Name

    MAPK13,MGC99536,p38 delta,p38delta,PRKM13,RP1-179N16.4,SAPK4, [human]
    Mapk13,p38 delta,RP24-313J18.2,SAPK4,Serk4, [mouse]

    p38 delta/MAPK13 Related Studies

  • Efimova T, et al. (2003) A regulatory role for p38 delta MAPK in keratinocyte differentiation. Evidence for p38 delta-ERK1/2 complex formation. J Biol Chem. 278(36): 34277-85.
  • Eckert RL, et al. (2003) p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinases on the body surface--a function for p38 delta. J Invest Dermatol. 120(5): 823-8.
  • Loesch M, et al. (2008) The p38 MAPK stress pathway as a tumor suppressor or more? Front Biosci. 13: 3581-93.
  • Schindler EM, et al. (2009) p38delta Mitogen-activated protein kinase is essential for skin tumor development in mice. Cancer Res. 69(11): 4648-55.
  • Tan FL, et al. (2010) p38delta/MAPK13 as a diagnostic marker for cholangiocarcinoma and its involvement in cell motility and invasion. Int J Cancer. 126(10): 2353-61.
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