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Mouse TUBB3 / beta III Tubulin  Protein

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TUBB3 / beta III Tubulin

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    TUBB3 / beta III Tubulin Summary & Protein Information

    TUBB3 / beta III Tubulin Background

    Subunit structure: Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.
    Domain: The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
    Subcellular location: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.
    Tissue specificity: Expression is primarily restricted to central and peripheral nervous system. Greatly increased expression in most cancerous tissues. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14736079, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20191564}.
    Post-translational: Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable). {ECO:0000305|PubMed:19524510}.; Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16371510}.
    Involvement in disease: DISEASE: Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles 3A (CFEOM3A) [MIM:600638]: A congenital ocular motility disorder marked by restrictive ophthalmoplegia affecting extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor and/or trochlear nerves. It is clinically characterized by anchoring of the eyes in downward gaze, ptosis, and backward tilt of the head. Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3 presents as a non-progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression. Patients may be bilaterally or unilaterally affected, and their oculo-motility defects range from complete ophthalmoplegia (with the eyes fixed in a hypo- and exotropic position), to mild asymptomatic restrictions of ocular movement. Ptosis, refractive error, amblyopia, and compensatory head positions are associated with the more severe forms of the disorder. In some cases, the ocular phenotype is accompanied by additional features including developmental delay, corpus callosum agenesis, basal ganglia dysmorphism, facial weakness, polyneuropathy. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20074521}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; DISEASE: Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 1 (CDCBM1) [MIM:614039]: A disorder of aberrant neuronal migration and disturbed axonal guidance. Affected individuals have mild to severe mental retardation, strabismus, axial hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, including polymicrogyria, gyral disorganization, and fusion of the basal ganglia, as well as thin corpus callosum, hypoplastic brainstem, and dysplastic cerebellar vermis. Extraocular muscles are not involved. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20829227}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Sequence similarity: Belongs to the tubulin family. {ECO:0000305}.
    General information above from UniProt

    TUBB3 / beta III Tubulin Alternative Name

    CDCBM,FEOM3,TUBB4,CDCBM1,CFEOM3,beta-4,CFEOM3A, [homo-sapiens]
    M(beta)3,M(beta)6,3200002H15Rik, [mus-musculus]

    TUBB3 / beta III Tubulin Related Studies