Immune Checkpoint

Immune Checkpoint Targets (Proteins, Antibodies, Genes, ELISA Kits)

PD1 PD-L1 PD-L2 4-1BB 4-1BBL HVEM BTLA CD160 CD226 Galectin-9 CTLA-4 B7-1 B7-2 CD40 CD40L Galectin-9 TIM-3 GITR GITRL SIRP alpha B7-H3 B7-H4 VISTA OX40 OX-40L SIRP alpha CD47 ICOS ICOSL TIGIT LAG3 CEACAM1 IDO CD28 LIGHT TIGIT CD155 CD70 Adenosine A2a receptor

Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Blocking Antibodies

Immune checkpoint blockade: PD1 blocking antibodies Immune checkpoint blockade: PD-L1 blocking antibodies

Immune Checkpoint Proteins

PD1 immune checkpoint proteins PD-L1 immune checkpoint proteins
CTLA-4 immune checkpoint proteins  

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors
CTLA-4 immune checkpoint inhibitors B7-H3 immune checkpoint inhibitors
IDO immune checkpoint inhibitors  

Immune Checkpoint Pathways

PD1 & PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway CTLA-4 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway
VISTA immune checkpoint pathway CEACAM1 immune checkpoint pathway
IDO immune checkpoint pathway HVEM & BTLA immune checkpoint pathway
CD266 & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway GITR & GITR Ligand immune checkpoint pathway
CD40 & CD40L immune checkpoint pathway  

Immune Checkpoint Detection: Antibodies

Immune checkpoint detection: FCM antibodies Immune checkpoint detection: IHC antibodies
Immune checkpoint detection: WB antibodies Immune checkpoint detection: ELISA antibodies
Immune checkpoint detection: ICC antibodies Immune checkpoint detection: IP antibodies

Immune Checkpoint Therapy

Immune checkpoint therapy-achievements Immune checkpoint therapy-combination
Immune checkpoint therapy-advantages Immune checkpoint therapy-adverse effects

Immune Checkpoint: PD1/PDCD1/CD279

PD1 immune checkpoint pathway PD1 immune checkpoint antibodies
PD1 immune checkpoint research  

Immune Checkpoint: VISTA/GI24/B7-H5

VISTA immune checkpoint antibodies VISTA immune checkpoint protein
VISTA immune checkpoint research  

Immune Checkpoint Background

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of immune checkpoint interaction

Immune checkpoint  therapies have attracted amounts of attention from scientists who are devoted to cancer treatment. What is immune checkpoint? It is a kind of co-stimulatory and inhibitory signal for regulating the antigen recognition of T cell receptor (TCR) in the process of immune responce. When immune system is attacking pathogens, these immune checkpoint molecules can protect the normal tissues from damage. The cancer cells cleverly escape from immune attack by dysregulating immune checkpoint related proteins. Immune checkpoint therapy relys on functioning immune system with agonists of co-stimulatory signals or antagonists of inhibitory signals. Over these years there are two immune checkpoint receptors that have been actively studied: cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 / CD152) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279). The corresponding antibodies can inhibit the functioning of the receptors and enhance antitumour immunity. Furthermore, multiple additional immune checkpoints, representing promising targets for anti-cancer therapy are under active development, more therapies based on immune checkpoint for more cancers are on the way to the market.

Immune checkpoint related reference

1, Pardoll DM. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2012; 12:252–64.
2, Christopher J. Nirschl and Charles G. Drake. y. Molecular Pathways: Coexpression of Immune Checkpoint Molecules: Signaling Pathways and Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 19(18); 4917–24.
3, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer & Alexander Eggermont. Novel immune checkpoint blocker approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. OncoImmunology; 3:11; e967147.