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Human Lactotransferrin/LTF  Protein

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Expression host: Human Cells  
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    Lactotransferrin/LTF Summary & Protein Information

    Lactotransferrin/LTF Background

    Gene Summary: This gene is a member of the transferrin family of genes and its protein product is found in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The protein is a major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions with an antimicrobial activity, making it an important component of the non-specific immune system. The protein demonstrates a broad spectrum of properties, including regulation of iron homeostasis, host defense against a broad range of microbial infections, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of cellular growth and differentiation and protection against cancer development and metastasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene
    General information above from NCBI
    Catalytic activity: Preferential at -Arg-Ser-Arg-Arg-|- and -Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg-|-, and of Z-Phe-Arg-|-aminomethylcoumarin.
    Subunit structure: Monomer. Found in a complex with LTF, CLU, EPPIN and SEMG1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10089347, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10828980, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11128996, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12450380, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15299444, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15299793, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15687491, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1581307, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16201406, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17543335, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17567961, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22900286, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8371268, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8594202, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8703903, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8931543, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9003186, ECO:0000269|Ref.70, ECO:0000269|Ref.73, ECO:0000269|Ref.74}.
    Subcellular location: Isoform 1: Secreted. Cytoplasmic granule. Note=Secreted into most exocrine fluids by various endothelial cells. Stored in the secondary granules of neutrophils.; Isoform DeltaLf: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly localized in the cytoplasm.
    Tissue specificity: High levels are found in saliva and tears, intermediate levels in serum and plasma, and low levels in urine. In kidney, detected in the distal collecting tubules in the medulla but not in the cortical region or in blood vessels. Detected in peripheral blood neutrophils (at protein level). Isoform 1 and isoform DeltaLf are expressed in breast, prostate, spleen, pancreas, kidney, small intestine, lung, skeletal muscle, uterus, thymus and fetal liver. Isoform 1 is expressed in brain, testis and peripheral blood leukocytes; isoform DeltaLf is barely detectable in these tissues. Isoform DeltaLf is expressed in placenta, liver and ovary; isoform 1 is barely detectable in these tissues. In kidney, isoform 1 is expressed at high levels in the collecting tubules of the medulla but at very low levels in the cortex. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10792619, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2981589, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9122171}.
    Post-translational: Isoform DeltaLf: Ubiquitinated at Lys-379 and Lys-391.; Poly-N-acetyllactosaminic carbohydrate moiety seems to be needed for TLR4 activation.
    Sequence similarity: Belongs to the transferrin family. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00741}.; Contains 2 transferrin-like domains. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00741}.
    General information above from UniProt

    Lactotransferrin, also known as Lactoferrin, Talalactoferrin and LTF, is a secreted protein which belongs to the transferrin family. Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe3+ ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. Lactotransferrin has antimicrobial activity which depends on the extracellular cation concentration. Lactoferroxins A, B and C have opioid antagonist activity. Lactoferroxin A shows preference for mu-receptors, while lactoferroxin B and lactoferroxin C have somewhat higher degrees of preference for kappa-receptors than for mu-receptors. Lactoferrin / LTF is a globular glycoprotein that is widely represented in various secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions. Lactoferrin / LTF is also present in secondary granules of PMN and is secreted by some acinar cells. Lactoferrin / LTF can be purified from milk or produced recombinantly. Human colostrum has the highest concentration, followed by human milk, then cow milk. Lactoferrin / LTF is one of the components of the immune system of the body; it has antimicrobial activity (bacteriocide, fungicide) and is part of the innate defense, mainly at mucoses. In particular, lactoferrin provides antibacterial activity to human infants. Lactoferrin interacts with DNA and RNA, polysaccharides and heparin, and shows some of its biological functions in complexes with these ligands.

    Lactotransferrin/LTF Alternative Name

    LF,HLF2,GIG12,HEL110, [homo-sapiens]
    LF,LTF,GIG12,HLF2,Lactotransferrin, [human]
    Csp82,Lactotransferrin,Lf,Ltf,MMS10R,Ms10r, [mouse]
    Lf,Csp82,Ms10r,MMS10R, [mus-musculus]

    Lactotransferrin/LTF Related Studies

  • Sánchez L, et al.,1992, Arch. Dis. Child. 67 (5): 657 - 61.
  • Wakabayashi H, et al., 2000, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46 (4): 595-602.
  • Nozaki A, et al., 2003, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (12): 10162-73.
  • Azzam HS, et al., 2007, Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25.