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Human GRN ORF mammalian expression plasmid, N-Flag tag

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Human GRN cDNA Clone Product Information
RefSeq ORF Size:1782bp
cDNA Description:Full length Clone DNA of Homo sapiens granulin with N terminal Flag tag.
Gene Synonym:GEP, GP88, PEPI, PGRN, PCDGF, GRN
Restriction Site:HindIII + XbaI (6kb + 1.82kb)
Sequence Description:Identical with the Gene Bank Ref. ID sequence except for the point mutations: 420T/C not causing the amino acid variation.
Promoter:Enhanced CMV mammalian cell promoter
Application:Stable or Transient mammalian expression
Antibiotic in E.coli:Kanamycin
Antibiotic in mammalian cell:Hygromycin
Shipping_carrier:Each tube contains lyophilized plasmid.
Storage:The lyophilized plasmid can be stored at room temperature for three months.
Human GRN Gene Plasmid Map
Human GRN natural ORF mammalian expression plasmid, N-Flag tag
FLAG Tag Info

FLAG-tag, or FLAG octapeptide, is a polypeptide protein tag that can be added to a protein using recombinant DNA technology. It can be used for affinity chromatography, then used to separate recombinant, overexpressed protein from wild-type protein expressed by the host organism. It can also be used in the isolation of protein complexes with multiple subunits.

A FLAG-tag can be used in many different assays that require recognition by an antibody. If there is no antibody against the studied protein, adding a FLAG-tag to this protein allows one to follow the protein with an antibody against the FLAG sequence. Examples are cellular localization studies by immunofluorescence or detection by SDS PAGE protein electrophoresis.

The peptide sequence of the FLAG-tag from the N-terminus to the C-terminus is: DYKDDDDK (1012 Da). It can be used in conjunction with other affinity tags, for example a polyhistidine tag (His-tag), HA-tag or Myc-tag. It can be fused to the C-terminus or the N-terminus of a protein. Some commercially available antibodies (e.g., M1/4E11) recognize the epitope only when it is present at the N-terminus. However, other available antibodies (e.g., M2) are position-insensitive.

Product nameProduct name

&Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Granulins have possible cytokine-like activity. They may play a role in inflammation, wound repair, and tissue remodeling. Granulin-4 promotes proliferation of the epithelial cell line A431 in culture while granulin-3 acts as an antagonist to granulin-4, inhibiting the growth. Granulin expression inhibited Tat transactivation, and tethering experiments showed that this effect was due, at least in part, to a direct action on cyclin T1 in the absence of Tat.

  • Hoque M, et al. (2003) The growth factor granulin interacts with cyclin T1 and modulates P-TEFb-dependent transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 23(5): 1688-702.
  • Bateman A, et al. (1990) Granulins, a novel class of peptide from leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 173(3): 1161-8.
  • Trinh DP, et al. (1999) Epithelin/granulin growth factors: extracellular cofactors for HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 256(2): 299-306.
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    Catalog: HG10826-NF
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