Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is a 24-kDa protein that binds insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-2 with high affinity and inhibits IGF action in vitro. The Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein also known as IGFBP serves as a carrier protein for Insulin-like growth factor 1. IGFBPs are clearly distinct but are sharing regions with strong homology. All members of the IGFBP family bind IGF-I and IGF-II with about equal affinity. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been shown to either inhibit or enhance the action of IGF, or act in an IGF-independent manner in the prostate. IGF-binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) inhibits IGF-I action in vitro and is the most abundant IGFBP in the rodent arterial wall. Expression of IGFBP-4 mRNA in nontransgenic littermates was maximal in liver and kidney. IGFBP-4 is a functional antagonist of IGF-I action on SMC. There is mounting evidence that the structure of the IGFBP proteins plays a key role in the regulation of IGF bioavailability, by modulating its molecular size, capillary membrane permeability, target tissue specificity, cell membrane adherence and IGF affinity.