|Datasheet||Specific References||Reviews||Related Products||Protocols|
|Human Cell lysate that Mouse TWSG1 transfected / overexpressed for Western blot (WB) positive control. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer (1X modified RIPA buffer+1X SDS loading buffer).|
|A DNA sequence encoding the mouse TWSG1 (Q9EP52) (Met 1-Phe 222) was expressed, with a C-terminal polyhistidine tag.|
|The secreted recombinant mouse TWSG1 comprises 209 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 23.6kDa. As a result of glycosylation, the apparent molecular mass of the recombinant protein is approximately 34 kDa in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.|
|Cell lysate was prepared by homogenization in ice-cold modified RIPA Lysis Buffer with cocktail of protease inhibitors (Sigma). Cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined by Bradford assay (Bio-Rad protein assay, Microplate Standard assay). The cell lysate was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS loading buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% b-mercaptoethanol, and lyophilized.|
|Modified RIPA Lysis Buffer: 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 1mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100, 0.1% SDS, 1% Sodium deoxycholate, 1mM PMSF.|
|12.5% SDS-PAGE Stained with Coomassie Blue after protein purification.|
|Samples are stable for up to twelve months from date of receipt.|
|1. Centrifuge the tube for a few seconds and ensure the pellet at the bottom of the tube. 2. Re-dissolve the pellet using 200μL pure water and boil for 2-5 min. 3. Store the lyophilized cell lysate at 4℃. After re-dissolution, recommend to aliquot it into smaller quantities and store at -80℃.|
|1 X Sample Buffer (1 X modified RIPA buffer+1 X SDS loading buffer).|
|Store at 4℃. After re-dissolution, aliquot and store at -80℃.|
|Western blot (WB): Use at an assay dependent dilution.|
Other Applications: Not tested.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
TWSG1 belongs to the twisted gastrulation protein family. TWSG1 from different species are functionally equivalent. In contrast to Drosophila where TWSG1 expression is limited to early embryos, expression of TWSG1 is found throughout mouse and human development. Mutations in the TWSG1 gene cause at least some of the cells on the dorsal half of the embryo to adopt more ventral cell fates. This is thought to involve gradients of the signaling molecule decapentaplegic. TWSG1 may function as a bone morphogenetic protein signalling agonist or antagonize these activities. It can dislodge latent bone morphogenetic proteins and thus provides a permissive signal that allows high BMP signaling in the embryo. TWSG1 is a cofactor in the antagonism of chordin to BMP signaling. It also binds both the vertebrate Decapentaplegic ortholog BMP4 and chordin and forms ternary complexes. Meanwhile, TWSG1 increases binding of chordin to BMP4, potentiates the ability of chordin to induce secondary axes in Xenopus embryos, and enhances chordin cleavage by vertebrate proteases related to tolloid at a site poorly used in the absence of TWSG1. The presence of TWSG1 enhances the secondary axis-inducing activity of 2 products of chordin cleavage.