Transglutaminases (TGase) are a family of calcium-dependent acyl-transfer enzymes ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells and responsible for catalyzing covalent cross-links between proteins or peptides. Transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) is a member of a family of Ca2+-dependent enzymes that catalyze covalent cross-linking reactions between proteins or peptides. TGM3 isoform is widely expressed and is important for epithelial barrier formation. It is a zymogen, requiring proteolysis for activity. Calcium-activated TGM3 can bind, hydrolyze, and is inhibited by GTP, despite lacking structural homology with other GTP binding proteins. TGM3 displays a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in vitro consistent with its proposed role in the early phase of cornified cell envelope assembly in the cytoplasm. TGM3-driven specific isopeptide bonds between intermediate filaments and KAPs participate to the progressive scaffolding of the hair shaft. Additionally, TGM3 may be a novel prognostic biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).