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Human GDF-15 Human Cells Transfected Lysate (positive control) (denatured)

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GDF-15Transfected / Overexpression Cell Lysate Product Information
Product Description:Human Cells transfected lysate in which Human GDF-15 has been over-expressed. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer (1X modified RIPA buffer+1X SDS sample buffer).
Preparation Method:Cell lysate was prepared by homogenization in ice-cold modified RIPA Lysis Buffer with cocktail of protease inhibitors (Sigma). Cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bradford assay (Bio-Rad protein assay, Microplate Standard assay). The cell lysate was boiled for 5 minutes in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% b-mercaptoethanol, and lyophilized.
Lysis Buffer:Modified RIPA Lysis Buffer: 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 1mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100, 0.1% SDS, 1% Sodium deoxycholate, 1mM PMSF
Quality Control Testing:12.5% SDS-PAGE Stained with Coomassie Blue
Stability:Samples are stable for up to twelve months from date of receipt at -80℃
Recommend Usage:1. Centrifuge the tube for a few seconds and ensure the pellet at the bottom of the tube. 2. Re-dissolve the pellet using 200μL pure water and boiled for 2-5 min. 3. Store it at -80℃. Recommend to aliquot the cell lysate into smaller quantities for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Notes:The lysate is ready to load on SDS-PAGE for Western blot application. If dissociating conditions are required, add reducing agent prior to heating.
Storage Buffer:In modified RIPA Lysis Buffer
Storage Instruction:Store at -80℃. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing
Application notes:WB: Use at an assay dependent dilution.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), also known as MIC-1, is a secreted member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, as a novel antihypertrophic regulatory factor in the heart. GDF-15 / GDF15 is not expressed in the normal adult heart but is induced in response to conditions that promote hypertrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy and it is expressed highly in liver. GDF-15 / GDF15 has a role in regulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways in injured tissues and during disease processes. GDF-15 / GDF15 is synthesized as precursor molecules that are processed at a dibasic cleavage site to release C-terminal domains containing a characteristic motif of 7 conserved cysteines in the mature protein. GDF-15 / GDF15 overexpression arising from an expanded erythroid compartment contributes to iron overload in thalassemia syndromes by inhibiting hepcidin expression.

  • Ago T, et al. (2006) GDF15, a cardioprotective TGF-beta superfamily protein. Circ Res. 98 (3): 294-297.
  • Hsiao E, et al. (2000) Characterization of growth-differentiation factor 15, a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member induced following liver injury. Mol Cell Biol. 20 (10): 3742-51.
  • Zimmers T, et al. (2005) Growth differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induction after kidney and lung injury. Shock. 23 (6): 543-8.