Contactins are a subgroup of molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that are expressed mainly in the nervous system. The subgroup consists of six members: Contactin-1, Contactin-2(TAG-1), Contactin-3(BIG-1), BIG-2, Contactin-5(NB-2) and NB-3. Since their identification in the late 1980s, Contactin-1 and Contactin-2 have been studied extensively. Axonal expression and the neurite extension activity of Contactin-1 and Contactin-2 attracted researchers to study the function of these molecules in axon guidance during development. Contactin-1 and Contactin-2 have come to be known as the principal molecules in the function and maintenance of myelinated neurons. In contrast, the function of the other four members of this subgroup remained unknown until recently. Contactin-5, also known as NB-2, is one of the neural recognition molecules in the contactin subgroup. Contactin-5 is expressed in brain and kidney and at very low level in placenta. In brain, Contactin-5 is highly expressed in the occipital lobe, amygdala, cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, thalamus and temporal lobe. Mice deficient in the Contactin-5 gene exhibit aberrant responses to acoustic stimuli. Contactin-5 may play a role in maturation of glutamatergic synapses in the brainstem during the final stages of auditory development. Contactin-5 gene may contribute to human neurological disorders.