TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, also known as TIMP-1/TIMP1, Collagenase inhibitor 16C8 fibroblast Erythroid-potentiating activity, TPA-S1TPA-induced proteinTissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, is a natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. TIMP-1/TIMP1 is found in fetal and adult tissues. Highest levels are found in bone, lung, ovary and uterus. Complexes with metalloproteinases and irreversibly inactivates them by binding to their catalytic zinc cofactor. TIMP-1/TIMP1 mediates erythropoiesis in vitro; but, unlike IL-3, it is species-specific, stimulating the growth and differentiation of only human and murine erythroid progenitors. In addition to its inhibitory role against most of the known MMPs, the protein is able to promote cell proliferation in a wide range of cell types, and may also have an anti-apoptotic function. Transcription of this protein encoding gene is highly inducible in response to many cytokines and hormones. In addition, the expression from some but not all inactive X chromosomes suggests that this gene inactivation is polymorphic in human females. This encoding gene is located within intron 6 of the synapsin I gene and is transcribed in the opposite direction. Complexes with metalloproteinases and irreversibly inactivates them by binding to their catalytic zinc cofactor. TIMP-1/TIMP1 is Known to act on MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-11, MMP-12, MMP-13 and MMP-16.