LIGHT, also known as TNFSF14 or CD258, is a newly identified member of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF14) that is expressed by activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, spleen cells, and immature dendritic cells. TNFSF14 / LIGHT / CD258 is a type II transmembrane protein that is known to bind 2 membrane-bound TNFSF signaling receptors: HVEM, which is predominantly expressed by T cells, and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), which is expressed by stromal cells and nonlymphoid hematopoietic cells. TNFSF14 / LIGHT / CD258 also binds to a soluble nonsignaling receptor, decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), which can modulate the function of LIGHT in vivo. TNFSF14 / LIGHT / CD258 can also costimulate T cell responses via HVEM, which is constitutively expressed in most lymphocyte subpopulations, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, TNFSF14 / LIGHT / CD258 has been shown to suppress tumor formation in vivo and to induce tumor cell apoptosis via the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and an increased lymphocyte adhesion to cancer cells. Thus, TNFSF14 / LIGHT / CD258 is being actively investigated as a possible basis for cancer treatment.
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