CD antigens by molecule

CD antigens are found on practically all known cell types. In some cases CD antigens are expressed only at certain stages of development or under certain conditions, for example after cell activation or in certain disease conditions. In Hematology the morphological criteria is for the description of specific developmental stages of lymphocytes unlike in CD antigens which the use of monoclonal antibodies allows the objective and precise analysis and standardized typing of mature and immature normal and malignant cells of all hematopoietic cell lineages. The use antibodies also helps to delineate the biologic traits that distinguish normal immune and hematopoietic cells from their malignant counterparts, which is utmost important in the understanding of hematological malignancies..

The expression of CD antigens is influenced by cytokines, such as binding of ligands to CD antigens which has shown to modulate the expression of cytokines. CD antigens have been shown to be identical with receptors of cytokines such as CD25 (TAC antigen).

CD antigens appear to carry out cytokine receptor-like functions such as CD27, CD30 and CD40. CD antigens are involved in modulating the biological activities of cytokines such as CD4, CD28 and CD40. CD antigens exist also in soluble forms for example CD14, CD21, CD23, CD27, CD100 and CD137.

The CD Antigen's designation isn't related to the biological function, thus CD antigens include receptors, glycans, adhesion molecules, membrane-bound enzymes, etc.

The most commonly know CD antigens are CD4 and CD8 which are markers for T-helper and T-suppressor cells, respectively. CD4 binds to relatively invariant sites on class II major histocompatibility complex molecules outside the peptide-binding groove, which interacts with the T-cell receptor. CD4 is also the central docking receptor for human immunodeficiency virus. CD8 binds to relatively invariant sites on class I major histocompatibility complex molecules outside the peptide-binding groove. CD8 is also expressed on a subset of dendritic cells. Other more important CD antigens include the leukocytes integrins (CD11/CD18) and the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34.

CD69 is homologous to members of a supergene family of type II integral membrane proteins having C-type lectin domains. Although the precise functions of the CD-69 antigen is not known, evidence suggests that these proteins transmit mitogenic signals across the plasma membrane and are up- regulated in response to lymphocyte activation

In the last decade the wide palette of monoclonal antibodies has been prepared which recognise of CD antigens on human cells. Much less monoclonal antibodies are available specific for typing of domestic animal cells. CD antigens have been characterized as both transmembrane proteins and cell surface proteins anchored to the plasma membrane via covalent attachment to fatty acid-containing glycolipids such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI).

CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation
CD antigens
what is CD antigen+
- CD antigen definition
- CD antigens expression
CD antigens by differentiation cells+
- B cell CD antigens
- T cell CD antigens
- NK cell CD antigens
- Granulocyte CD antigens
- Dendritic cell CD antigens
- Macrophage CD antigens
- Monocyte CD antigens
- Stem cell CD antigens
- Platelet CD antigens
- Erythrocyte CD antigens
- Endothelial cell CD antigens
- Epithelial cell CD antigens
CD antigens related to immunotherapy
CD antigens related to tumor
CD antigens as drug target
CD antigens by molecule
CD antigens by functions+
- CD antigens related to signal transduction
- CD antigens related to adaptive immunity
- CD antigens related to cell adhesion
- CD antigens related to cell migration
- CD antigens related to cell receptor
- CD antigens related to cell activation
- CD antigens related to cell interaction
- CD antigens related to cell inhibition
CD antigen as ligands
CD antigen as receptors
CD antigens related to signaling pathways+
- CD antigens related to Actin Dynamics Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to AKT Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to Canonical Wnt Pathway
- CD antigens related to Complement Activation Pathways
- CD antigens related to Death Receptor Signaling
- CD antigens related to EGFR Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to G Protein-coupled Recptors Signaling
- CD antigens related to Jak-Stat Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to MAPK-Erk Pathway
- CD antigens related to NF-kB (NFkB) Pathway
- CD antigens related to P38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to p53 Pathway
- CD antigens related to T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
- CD antigens related to TNF Signaling
CD antigens by species+
- human CD antigens
- mouse CD antigens
CD antigens reagent products
Non-CD cellular antigens
Clusters of differentiation
human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen workshop