CAM Kinase-enzyme

CaM kinase or CAMK family, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CaMK represents a diverse group of protein kinases which activation is dependent on binding to Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) complex. Based on substrate specificity, CaM kinases are divided into two groups, substrate restricted CaMKs and substrate multifunctional CaMKs. CaM kinases can be further categorized into the following subfamilies: CaMK I, CaMK II, CaMK III (Elongation Factor-2 Kinase), CaMK IV, phosphorylase kinase and myosin light chain kinase. CaMK I, II and IV have broader substrate specificity, and others are responsible for phosphorylation of a specific substrate.

CaMKs are activated by increases in the concentration of intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) and transfers phosphates from ATP to defined serine or threonine residues in other proteins. Activated CaMK is involved in the phosphorylation of transcription factors and therefore, in the regulation of expression of responding genes.

Calcium ions as second messengers play an essential role in many important cellular processes. In plants, transient changes in calcium content in the cytosol (calcium signatures) have been observed during growth, development and under stress conditions. Such diverse functions require many different calcium sensors.

Generally, CaM kinases have an N-terminal kinase domain, an autoinhibitory domain and a CaM-binding domain. All CaM kinases require Ca2+/CaM binding for activation. The binding of Ca2+/CaM comlex results in release of the auto-inhibitory domain from catalytic domain, which allows further substrate access. Studies have shown that CaM kinase participate in activation of multiple targets, including Akt and NF-kB. Additionally, CaM kinases also have function in regulation of cell cycle. For example, CaM kinase II phosphorylates CDC25 which leads to an increase of CDC25 phosphatase activity.

CAMK1 Family
CAMKI/CAMK1 CAMK1D/CKLiK CAMK1G
CAMK4/CaMKIV CAMK5/CAMKV  
CAMK2 Family
CAMK2A CAMK2B CaMKII/CAMK2G
CAMKL Family
AMPKA1/PRKAA1 AMPKA2/PRKAA2 BRSK1
CHK1/CHEK1 CHK2/CHEK2 MELK
MARK3/C-TAK1 NIM1K PIM1
PIM2 PIM3 PKC-nu/PRKD3
PRKD2 SIK1 SNRK
STK11/LKB1 STK33 STK40
TSSK2/TSK2 TSSK6 TRIB1
TRIB2/TRB2 TRIB3/TRB3  
DAPK Family
DAPK1 DAPK2/DAP Kinase 2 DAPK3/ZIPK
DRAK1/STK17A    
MAPKAPK Family
MAPKAPK3/MK3 MAPKAPK5/PRAK/MK5 MKNK1
MNK2/MKNK2    
Other Family
CASK Kinase DCAMKL1/DCLK1 OBSCN
MYLK MYLK2 MYLK3
PSKH1 SPEG/APEG-1 CAMKK1
Enzymes | Proteases | Kinases
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Protein Kinase Introduction
Protein kinase classified by catalytic domains
Protein kinase classified by substrates+
- Tyrosine Kinase
- tyrosine-kinase like group of kinases
- Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTKs)
- Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (PTKS)
- Serine Threonine Kinase
- Histidine Kinase-HK
Protein Kinase Inhibitor
Dual specificity kinase
Intracellular Kinases
Protein kinase related to signaling pathway
Protein Kinase in the Akt Pathway
Protein Kinase in Apoptosis Regulation
Lipid Kinase
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