Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer: Review
Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer. What is adoptive immunotherapy for cancer? Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer is a treatment used to help the immune system fight cancer. T cells are collected from a patient and grown in the laboratory. This increases the number of T cells that are able to kill cancer cells. These T cells are given back to the patient to help the immune system to fight disease. Also called cellular adoptive immunotherapy.
The early promise of adoptive immunotherapy is now coming to fruition with exciting clinical responses being reported against various cancers. This has particularly been the case with adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with advanced malignant melanoma, transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting CD19 in patients with B-cell malignancies such as chronic lymphoid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia and transfer of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cells against viral-induced malignancies such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder(PTLD).
Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer： Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)
Adoptive T cell immunotherapy based on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is the most effective treatment for cancer of malignant melanoma. The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes immunotherapy has demonstrated high overall response rates, resulting in cancer regression and prolonged survival in comparison to IL-2 and ipilimumab treatments.
Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer： Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell
The technique of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell for cancer immunotherapy has shown very encouraging results in early clinical trials against some advanced, hard-to-treat types of leukemias and lymphomas.
Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer： Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cells
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cells immunotherapy have been most successful as prophylaxis and therapy for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), which expresses the full array of latent EBV antigens (type 3 latency), in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Although much progresses have been made, for application of adoptive immunotherapy for cancer to a wider range of solid and hematological cancers, several challenges remain with nemerous corresponding strategies and developments. It is anticipated that these developments will have a significant impact on the treatment of cancer patients with advanced metastatic disease in the future
Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer: Reference
Darcy P K et al. Adoptive immunotherapy: a new era for the treatment of cancer[J]. Immunotherapy, 2015, 7(5): 469-471.
Maus M V et al. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer or viruses[J]. Annual review of immunology, 2014, 32: 189.