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The pGEM-T is 3kb in length, and contains the amplicin resistance gene, conferring selection of the plasmid in E. coli, and the ori site which is the bacterial origin of replication. The plasmid has multiple cloning sites as shown below. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning. Many E. coli strains are suitable for the propagation of this vector including JM109, DH5α and TOP10.
The coding sequence can be easily obtained by digesting the vector with proper restriction enzyme(s). The coding sequence can also be amplified by PCR with M13 primers, or primer pair SP6 and T7.
TGFBR2 is member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and the TGFB receptor subfamily. It is a transmembrane protein. TGFBR2 is comprised by a C-terminal protein kinase domain and an N-terminal ectodomain. The ectodomain consists of a compact fold containing nine beta-strands and a single helix stabilised by a network of six intra strand disulphide bonds. The folding topology includes a central five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet, eight-residues long at its centre, covered by a second layer consisting of two segments of two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets. TGFBR2 has a protein kinase domain, forms a heterodimeric complex with another receptor protein, and binds TGF-beta. This receptor/ligand complex phosphorylates proteins, which then enter the nucleus and regulate the transcription of a subset of genes related to cell proliferation. Mutations in TGFBR2 gene have been associated with Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Deitz Aortic Aneurysm Syndrome, and the development of various types of tumors. TGFBR2 attenuates the biological activities of TGF-beta in colorectal cancer. TGFBR2 expression is increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Its expression is decreased by IL-1beta while inducing Sp3 via NFkappaB. TGFB2 and TGFBR2 are involved in the antiestrogenic activity of tamoxifen metabolites in breast cancer.