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TGFBR1 / ALK-5  Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

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Expression host: Human Cells  
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Expression host: Baculovirus-Insect Cells  
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TGFBR1 / ALK-5 Related Area

TGFBR1 / ALK-5 Related Pathways

TGFBR1 / ALK-5 Summary & Protein Information

TGFBR1 / ALK-5 Background

Gene Summary: The protein encoded by this gene forms a heteromeric complex with type II ALK5 receptors when bound to ALK5, transducing the ALK5 signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome (LDAS). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
General information above from NCBI
Catalytic activity: ATP + [receptor-protein] = ADP + [receptor-protein] phosphate.
Cofactor: Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Evidence={ECO:0000250}; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035; Evidence={ECO:0000250};
Enzyme regulation: ENZYME REGULATION: Kept in an inactive conformation by FKBP1A preventing receptor activation in absence of ligand. CD109 is another inhibitor of the receptor. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9233797}.
Subunit structure: Homodimer; in the endoplasmic reticulum but also at the cell membrane. Heterohexamer; TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 homodimeric ligands assemble a functional receptor composed of two TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 heterodimers to form a ligand-receptor heterohexamer. The respective affinity of TGBRB1 and TGFBR2 for the ligands may modulate the kinetics of assembly of the receptor and may explain the different biological activities of TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3. Interacts with CD109; inhibits TGF-beta receptor activation in keratinocytes. Interacts with RBPMS. Interacts (unphosphorylated) with FKBP1A; prevents TGFBR1 phosphorylation by TGFBR2 and stabilizes it in the inactive conformation. Interacts with SMAD2, SMAD3 and ZFYVE9; ZFYVE9 recruits SMAD2 and SMAD3 to the TGF-beta receptor. Interacts with TRAF6 and MAP3K7; induces MAP3K7 activation by TRAF6. Interacts with PARD6A; involved in TGF-beta induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interacts with SMAD7, NEDD4L, SMURF1 and SMURF2; SMAD7 recruits NEDD4L, SMURF1 and SMURF2 to the TGF-beta receptor. Interacts with USP15 and VPS39. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10025408, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11163210, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11278251, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11583628, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12941698, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15177479, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15317461, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15496141, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15761148, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16754747, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17099224, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18243111, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18758450, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20207738, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7774578, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8980228, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9233797, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9311995, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9346908, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9865696}.
Domain: The SOCS box domain mediates the interaction with the Elongin BC complex, an adapter module in different E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes (By similarity).
Subcellular location: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cell junction, tight junction.
Tissue specificity: Found in all tissues examined, most abundant in placenta and least abundant in brain and heart.
Post-translational: Phosphorylated at basal levels in the absence of ligand. Activated upon phosphorylation by TGFBR2, mainly in the GS domain. Phosphorylation in the GS domain abrogates FKBP1A-binding. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11583628, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7774578}.; N-Glycosylated. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9661882}.; Ubiquitinated; undergoes ubiquitination catalyzed by several E3 ubiquitin ligases including SMURF1, SMURF2 and NEDD4L2. Results in the proteasomal and/or lysosomal degradation of the receptor thereby negatively regulating its activity. Deubiquitinated by USP15, leading to stabilization of the protein and enhanced TGF-beta signal. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15496141, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22344298}.
Involvement in disease: DISEASE: Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1 (LDS1) [MIM:609192]: An aortic aneurysm syndrome with widespread systemic involvement, characterized by arterial tortuosity and aneurysms, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula or cleft palate. Physical findings include prominent joint laxity, easy bruising, wide and atrophic scars, velvety and translucent skin with easily visible veins, spontaneous rupture of the spleen or bowel, and catastrophic complications of pregnancy, including rupture of the gravid uterus and the arteries, either during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Some patients have craniosynostosis, exotropy, micrognathia and retrognathia, structural brain abnormalities, and intellectual deficit. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15731757, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16596670, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16791849, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16928994, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19883511, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22113417}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. TGFBR1 mutation Gln-487 has been reported to be associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection (TAAD) (PubMed:16791849). This phenotype, also known as thoracic aortic aneurysms type 5 (AAT5), is distinguised from LDS1 by having aneurysms restricted to thoracic aorta. It is unclear, however, if this condition is fulfilled in individuals bearing Gln-487 mutation, that is why they are considered as LDS1 by the OMIM resource. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16791849}.; DISEASE: Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE) [MIM:132800]: A disorder characterized by multiple skin tumors that undergo spontaneous regression. Tumors appear most often on sun-exposed regions, are locally invasive, and undergo spontaneous resolution over a period of months leaving pitted scars. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:21358634}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. TGFB receptor subfamily. {ECO:0000305}.; Contains 1 GS domain. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00585}.; Contains 1 protein kinase domain. {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00159}.
General information above from UniProt

Transforming growth factor, beta receptor I, also known as Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I , Serine / threonine-protein kinase receptor R4, Activin receptor-like kinase 5, SKR4, ALK-5, and TGFBR1, is a single-pass type I membrane protein which belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and TGFB receptor subfamily. TGFBR1 / ALK-5 is found in all tissues examined. It is most abundant in placenta and least abundant in brain and heart. TGF-beta functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Administration of TGF-beta is able to protect against mammary tumor development in transgenic mouse models in vivo. Disruption of the TGF-beta/SMAD pathway has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, with the majority of colon and gastric cancers being caused by an inactivating mutation of TGF-beta RII. On ligand binding, TGFBR1 / ALK-5 forms a receptor complex consisting of two type I I and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which auto-phosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. TGF-beta signaling via TGFBR1 / ALK-5 is not required in myocardial cells during mammalian cardiac development, but plays an irreplaceable cell-autonomous role regulating cellular communication, differentiation and proliferation in endocardial and epicardial cells. Defects in TGFBR1 / ALK-5 are the cause of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 1A (LDS1A), Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2A (LDS2A), and aortic aneurysm familial thoracic type 5 (AAT5).

TGFBR1 / ALK-5 Alternative Name

ACVRLK4,AAT5,ALK5,ESS1,LDS1,MSSE,SKR4,ALK-5,LDS1A,LDS2A,TGFR-1,tbetaR-I, [homo-sapiens]
ALK5,TGFR-1,Alk-5,AU017191,ESK2,RP23-457P12.1,TbetaRI,TbetaR-I,Tgfbr1, [mouse]
ALK5,Alk-5,TbetaRI,AU017191,TbetaR-I, [mus-musculus]

TGFBR1 / ALK-5 Related Studies

  • Seki T, et al. (2006) Nonoverlapping expression patterns of ALK1 and ALK5 reveal distinct roles of each receptor in vascular development. Lab Invest. 86(2): 116-29. et al.
  • Piek E, et al. (1999) TGF-(beta) type I receptor/ALK-5 and Smad proteins mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation in NMuMG breast epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 112 (24): 4557-68. et al.
  • Dudas M, et al. (2004) Tgf-beta3-induced palatal fusion is mediated by Alk-5/Smad pathway. Dev Biol. 266(1): 96-108.