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>TGF-beta 1 (TGFB1) Protein, Antibody, Gene & Cell Lysate
TGF-beta 1 (TGFB1) Protein, Antibody, Gene & Cell Lysate
TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1 Related Areas
TGF-beta 1 Alternative Names
TGFB1, TGFB, TGFbeta, CED, DPD1, LAP [Homo sapiens]
TGF-beta 1, Tgfb1, TGFbeta1, Tgfb, Tgfb-1 [Mus musculus]
TGF-beta (Transforming growth factor beta / TGF-β) protein is a type of cytokine that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells. TGF-beta, is a protein synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta protein has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. Learn more.
The three isoforms of TGF-beta, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, were first identified from three peaks of activity seen during some of the earliest attempts to purify TGF-beta. The N-linked glycosylation sites, nine cysteine residues, the hydrophobic dimer interface and the protein backbone are highly conserved features across all three isoforms. TGF-beta family members play central roles in metazoan developmental processes, including initiation of appendage formation in adult flies, establishment of the mammalian left-right body plane, and regulation of nematode morphology. Learn more.
TGF-beta signaling is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival/or apoptosis of many cells, including glioma cells. TGF-beta protein acts via specific receptors activating multiple intracellular pathways resulting in phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smad2/3 proteins that associate with the common mediator, Smad4. Such complex translocates to the nucleus, binds to DNA and regulates transcription of many genes. Furthermore, TGF-beta -activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a component of TGF-beta signaling and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Learn more.
TGF-beta receptors are single pass serine/threonine kinase receptors. They exist in several different isoforms that can be homo- or heterodimeric. TGF-beta signaling is initiated by binding of the growth factor ligand to the small extracellular domains of two homologous, functionally distinct transmembrane receptor kinases: the TGF-beta receptor 1 and TGF-beta receptor 2 (TbetaR1 and TbetaR2, respectively). Learn more.
TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1 Related Studies
- Khalil N. (1999). TGF-beta: from latent to active. Microbes Infect. 1 (15): 1255–63.
- The TGF-beta system — Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology.
- Hinck, A.P, et al. (1996) Transforming growth factor beta 1: three-dimensional structure in solution and comparison with the X-ray structure of transforming growth factor beta 2. Biochemistry. 35: 8517-8534.
- Heldin CH, et al. (1997) TGF-beta signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature. 390(6659):465-71.