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The pGEM-T is 3kb in length, and contains the amplicin resistance gene, conferring selection of the plasmid in E. coli, and the ori site which is the bacterial origin of replication. The plasmid has multiple cloning sites as shown below. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning. Many E. coli strains are suitable for the propagation of this vector including JM109, DH5α and TOP10.
The coding sequence can be easily obtained by digesting the vector with proper restriction enzyme(s). The coding sequence can also be amplified by PCR with M13 primers, or primer pair SP6 and T7.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 16, also known as myristoylated and palmitoylated serine/threonine-protein kinase, Protein kinase PKL12, TGF-beta-stimulated factor 1, TSF-1, MPSK1 and STK16, is a membrane protein which is ubiquitously expressed at very low levels. STK16 / MPSK1 belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It contains one protein kinase domain. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) shows a variety of biological activities in various organs or cells. Some factors such as Smads (Sma and Mad proteins) and TGF-beta activating kinase 1 have been characterized as signalling molecules downstream of TGF-beta. Several TGF-beta response elements have been identified such as cAMP response element, Smad binding element, and recognition sites for activating protein-1 and stimulating protein-1 in various gene promoters. STK16 / MPSK1 is an unique factor with two biological functions, transcriptional regulation and protein phosphorylation, that may be involved in TGF-beta signals. STK16 / MPSK1 is a protein kinase that act on both serine and threonine residues. STK16 / MPSK1 possessed DNA-binding ability and activated the TGF-beta responsive CNP promoter or vascular endothelial growth factor gene promoter which possesses a sequence element analogous to the TGF-beta responsive GC-rich element of the CNP promoter. STK16 / MPSK1 did not directly activate a Smads-dependent promoter from plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene, but it showed enhancement in co-operation with Smad3 and Smad4. STK16 / MPSK1 mRNA as well as its protein level were stimulated by TGF-beta treatment.