Gene Summary: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein can be activated by various ligands including interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma, EGF, PDGF and IL6. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes, which is thought to be important for cell viability in response to different cell stimuli and pathogens. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.General information above from NCBI
Subunit structure: Isoform alpha homodimerizes upon IFN-gamma induced phosphorylation. Heterodimer with STAT2 upon IFN-alpha/beta induced phosphorylation. Interacts with NMI. Interacts with Sendai virus C', C, Y1 and Y2 proteins, Nipah virus P, V and W proteins, and rabies virus phosphoprotein preventing activation of ISRE and GAS promoter (By similarity). Interacts with HCV core protein; the interaction results in STAT1 degradation. Interacts with PIAS1; the interaction requires phosphorylation on Ser-727 and inhibits STAT1 activation. Interacts with IFNAR1; the interaction requires the phosphorylation of IFNAR1 at 'Tyr-466'. Interacts with IFNAR2. Interacts with PIAS1 (dimethylated on arginine); the interaction results in release of STAT1 from its target gene. Interacts with SRC (By similarity). Interacts with ERBB4 (phosphorylated). Interacts with PTK2/FAK1.
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Translocated into the nucleus upon tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization, in response to IFN-gamma and signaling by activated FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 or FGFR4.
Post-translational: Phosphorylated on tyrosine and serine residues in response to a variety of cytokines/growth hormones including IFN-alpha, IFN- gamma, PDGF and EGF. Activated KIT promotes phosphorylation on tyrosine residues and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. Tyrosine phosphorylated in response to constitutively activated FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Upon EGF stimulation, phosphorylation on Tyr-701 (lacking in beta form) by JAK1, JAK2 or TYK2 promotes dimerization and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. Growth hormone (GH) activates STAT1 signaling only via JAK2. PHosphorylation on Ser-727 by several kinases including MAPK14, ERK1/2 and CAMKII on IFN-gamma stimulation, regulates STAT1 transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-727 promotes sumoylation though increasing interaction with PIAS. Phosphorylation on Ser-727 by PKCdelta induces apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging agents. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues when PTK2/FAK1 is activated; most likely this is catalyzed by a SRC family kinase. Dephosphorylation on tyrosine residues by PTPN2 negatively regulates interferon-mediated signaling.
Sumoylated with SUMO1, SUMO2 and SUMO3. Sumoylation is enhanced by IFN-gamma-induced phosphorylation on Ser-727, and by interaction with PIAS proteins. Enhances the transactivation activity.
Involvement in disease: STAT1 deficiency complete (STAT1D) [MIM:613796]: A disorder characterized by susceptibility to severe mycobacterial and viral infections. Affected individuals can develop disseminated infections and die of viral illness. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) [MIM:209950]: This rare condition confers predisposition to illness caused by moderately virulent mycobacterial species, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and environmental non- tuberculous mycobacteria, and by the more virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other microorganisms rarely cause severe clinical disease in individuals with susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, with the exception of Salmonella which infects less than 50% of these individuals. The pathogenic mechanism underlying MSMD is the impairment of interferon-gamma mediated immunity, whose severity determines the clinical outcome. Some patients die of overwhelming mycobacterial disease with lepromatous-like lesions in early childhood, whereas others develop, later in life, disseminated but curable infections with tuberculoid granulomas. MSMD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Familial candidiasis 7 (CANDF7) [MIM:614162]: A primary immunodeficiency disorder with altered immune responses and impaired clearance of fungal infections, selective against Candida. It is characterized by persistent and/or recurrent infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes caused by organisms of the genus Candida, mainly Candida albicans. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. STAT1 mutations in patients with autosomal dominant candidiasis lead to defective responses of type 1 and type 17 helper T-cells, characterized by reduced production of interferon- alpha, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22. These cytokines are crucial for the antifungal defense of skin and mucosa (PubMed:21714643).
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the transcription factor STAT family.
Contains 1 SH2 domain.
General information above from UniProt