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SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Related Areas

SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Related Pathways

SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Related Product

    SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Background

    Gene Summary: Alpha-synuclein is a member of the synuclein family, which also includes beta- and gamma-synuclein. Synucleins are abundantly expressed in the brain and alpha- and beta-synuclein inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. SNCA may serve to integrate presynaptic signaling and membrane trafficking. Defects in SNCA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. SNCA peptides are a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Four alternatively spliced transcripts encoding two different isoforms have been identified for SNCA gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
    General information above from NCBI
    Subunit structure: Soluble monomer which can form filamentous aggregates. Interacts with UCHL1 (By similarity). Interacts with phospholipase D and histones.
    Domain: The 'non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque' domain (NAC domain) is involved in fibrils formation. The middle hydrophobic region forms the core of the filaments. The C- terminus may regulate aggregation and determine the diameter of the filaments.
    Subcellular location: Cytoplasm. Membrane. Nucleus. Cell junction, synapse. Note=Membrane-bound in dopaminergic neurons.
    Tissue specificity: Expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver. Concentrated in presynaptic nerve terminals.
    Post-translational: Phosphorylated, predominantly on serine residues. Phosphorylation by CK1 appears to occur on residues distinct from the residue phosphorylated by other kinases. Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is selective and extensive in synucleinopathy lesions. In vitro, phosphorylation at Ser-129 promoted insoluble fibril formation. Phosphorylated on Tyr-125 by a PTK2B-dependent pathway upon osmotic stress.
    Hallmark lesions of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies contain alpha-synuclein that is modified by nitration of tyrosine residues and possibly by dityrosine cross-linking to generated stable oligomers.
    Ubiquitinated. The predominant conjugate is the diubiquitinated form (By similarity).
    Acetylation at Met-1 seems to be important for proper folding and native oligomeric structure.
    Involvement in disease: Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1.
    Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Parkinson disease 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian symptoms (resting tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mental impairment leading to dementia, parkinsonism, fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Sequence similarities: Belongs to the synuclein family.
    General information above from UniProt

    Alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn), also known as NACP or SNCA, exists as at least two structural isoforms: one is helix-rich, membrane-bound form that both the N- and C-terminal regions of alpha-synuclein are tightly associated with membranes and the other is disordered, cytosolic form. Synuclein is found predominantly in the presynaptic termini, in both free or membrane-bound forms. SNCA is extensively localized in nucleus of neurons. It has been shown that alpha-Synuclein was highly expressed in the mitochondria in olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, and thalamus, where the cytosolic alpha-Synuclein was also rich. Normally the unstructured soluble type of alpha-synuclein can aggregate to form insoluble fibrils in pathological conditions characterized by Lewy bodies, such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. SNCA abnormality and mitochondrial deficiency are two major changes in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, alpha-synuclein is an abundant component of Lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson's disease and diffuse Lewy body disease.

    SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Altermative Names

    SNCA/alpha-Synuclein Related Studies

  • Arima K, et al. (1998) Immunoelectron-microscopic demonstration of NACP / alpha-synuclein-epitopes onthe filamentous component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and in dementia with Lewy bodies. Brain Res. 808 (1): 93-100.
  • Arima K, et al. (1998) NACP / alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in fibrillary components of neuronal and oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in the pontine nuclei in multiple system atrophy. Acta Neuropathol. 96 (5): 439-44.
  • Lee HJ, et al. (2001) Membrane-bound alpha-Synuclein Has a High Aggregation Propensity and the Ability to Seed the Aggregation of the Cytosolic Form. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277: 671-8.
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