Transforming protein RhoA, also known as Rho cDNA clone 12, Ras homolog gene family member A, RHOA and ARH12, is a cell membrane and cytoplasm protein which belongs to the small GTPase superfamily and Rho family. The Rho family of small GTPases plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton that underlies various important cellular functions such as shape changes, migration, and polarity. RHOA / ARH12 is part of a larger family of related proteins known as the Ras superfamily; proteins involved in the regulation and timing of cell division. RHOA / ARH12 is a small GTPase protein known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in the formation of stress fibers. It acts upon two known effector proteins: ROCK1 (Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1) and DIAPH1 ( diaphanous homolog 1 (Drosophila) ). RHOA / ARH12 regulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. RHOA / ARH12 serves as a target for the yopT cysteine peptidase from Yersinia pestis, vector of the plague, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes gastrointestinal disorders. RHOA / ARH12 may be an activator of PLCE1. It is activated by ARHGEF2, which promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP.