>Regulatory T Cell
Regulatory T Cell
Sino biological offers a wide selection of tools for research on regulatory T cells, including
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Regulatory T Cell Background
Regulatory T cells, also known as suppresser T cells, act to suppress both antibody-mediated and/or cell-mediated immune responses, and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis. Immune protection is achieved by the elaboration of many molecules that together can not only destroy invading organisms, pathogenic cells, and tumors but also injure normal cells. To function properly, the immune system must discriminate between self and non-self. When self/non-self discrimination fails, the immune system destroys cells and tissues of the body and as a result causes autoimmune diseases. For many years, different laboratories have found evidence for the existence of regulatory T cells and their critical roles in the vertebrate immune system. Regulatory T cells shut down immune responses after they have successfully tackled invading organisms, and also in regulating potential hazardous immune responses, such as autoimmunity. Taking advantage of the immunosuppressive potential of regulatory T cells, become more and more important in the fields of autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation and cancer immunotherapy.
Regulatory T cells come in many forms, of which the best described subset is the naturally occurring regulatory T cells. The naturally occurring regulatory T cells originally recognized by their constitutive expression of CD4 and CD25 are further defined by expression of the transcription factor foxP3 and surface. The generation and suppressive activity of this regulatory T cell subset is dependent on TGF-beta. It has also been shown that the naturally occurring regulatory T cells can induce IDO in appropriate dendritic cells by CD152 mediated ligation of CD80/CD86. Other T cell subsets bearing suppressive capacity have been reported, including T-helper-e cells (Th3) and type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1). Type 1 regulatory T cells are defined by their ability to produce high levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta. They are specific for a variety of antigens arise in vivo, but may also differentiate from naïve CD4+ T cells in the presence of IL-10 in vitro. In addition, anergic CD4+ T cells generated by antigen stimulation in the absence of costimulation can act as regulatory T cells, by competing at the sites of antigen presentation and adsorbing out stimulatory cytokines such as IL-2.
Regulatory T Cell Related Studies
- Roncarolo MG, et al. (2001) Type 1 T regulatory cells. Immunol Rev. 82:68-79.
- Belkaid Y, et al. (2005) Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease. Nat Immunol. 6(4):353-60.
- Christian Veldman, et al. (2006) Type I Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmunity and Inflammatory Diseases. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 140:174-83
- Wing K, et al. (2010) Regulatory T cells exert checks and balances on self tolerance and autoimmunity. Nat Immunol. 11(1):7-13.