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The pGEM-T is 3kb in length, and contains the amplicin resistance gene, conferring selection of the plasmid in E. coli, and the ori site which is the bacterial origin of replication. The plasmid has multiple cloning sites as shown below. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning. Many E. coli strains are suitable for the propagation of this vector including JM109, DH5α and TOP10.
The coding sequence can be easily obtained by digesting the vector with proper restriction enzyme(s). The coding sequence can also be amplified by PCR with M13 primers, or primer pair SP6 and T7.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3, also known as Protein kinase C nu type, Protein kinase EPK2, PRKD3, EPK2 and PRKCN, is a cytoplasm and membrane protein which belongs to the protein kinase superfamily, CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family and PKD subfamily. PRKD3 / PRKCN contains one PH domain, two phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc fingers and one protein kinase domain. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. They also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role. PRKD3 / PRKCN converts transient diacylglycerol (DAG) signals into prolonged physiological effects, downstream of PKC. It is involved in resistance to oxidative stress. PRKD3 / PRKCN is activated by DAG and phorbol esters. Phorbol-ester/DAG-type domains 1 and 2 bind both DAG and phorbol ester with high affinity and mediate translocation to the cell membrane. Autophosphorylation of Ser-735 and phosphorylation of Ser-731 by PKC relieves auto-inhibition by the PH domain. PRKD3 / PRKCN can be activated rapidly by the agonists of G protein-coupled receptors. It resides in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and its nuclear accumulation is found to be dramatically enhanced in response to its activation. PRKD3 / PRKCN can also be activated after B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement, which requires intact phospholipase C gamma and the involvement of other PKC family members.