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The pGEM-T is 3kb in length, and contains the amplicin resistance gene, conferring selection of the plasmid in E. coli, and the ori site which is the bacterial origin of replication. The plasmid has multiple cloning sites as shown below. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning. Many E. coli strains are suitable for the propagation of this vector including JM109, DH5α and TOP10.
The coding sequence can be easily obtained by digesting the vector with proper restriction enzyme(s). The coding sequence can also be amplified by PCR with M13 primers, or primer pair SP6 and T7.
PHYH belongs to the family of iron(II)-dependent oxygenases, which typically incorporate one atom of dioxygen into the substrate and one atom into the succinate carboxylate group. PHYH is expressed in liver, kidney, and T-cells, but not in spleen, brain, heart, lung and skeletal muscle. It converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA. Defects in PHYH can cause Refsum disease (RD). RD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by a tetrad of abnormalities: retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and elevated protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Patients exhibit accumulation of the branched-chain fatty acid, phytanic acid, in blood and tissues.