Gene Summary: This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. Studies suggest that this gene plays a role in organ development, wound healing, and tumor progression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, somatic and familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and a variety of other cancers. General information above from NCBI
Catalytic activity: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
Enzyme regulation: Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Binding of PDGFA and/or PDGFB leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by imatinib and sorafenib.
Subunit structure: Interacts with homodimeric PDGFA, PDGFB and PDGFC, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB. Monomer in the absence of bound ligand. Interaction with dimeric PDGFA, PDGFB and/or PDGFC leads to receptor dimerization, where both PDGFRA homodimers and heterodimers with PDGFRB are observed. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SHB (via SH2 domain) (By similarity). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SHF (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SRC (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PIK3R1. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PLCG1 (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with CRK, GRB2 and GRB7. Interacts with human cytomegalovirus/HHV-5 envelop glycoprotein B/gB.
Subcellular location: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Note=The activated receptor is rapidly internalized and degraded.
Tissue specificity: Detected in platelets (at protein level). Widely expressed. Detected in brain, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, heart, and embryo. Expressed in primary and metastatic colon tumors and in normal colon tissue.
Ubiquitinated, leading to its degradation (Probable).
Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon ligand binding. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit. Phosphorylation at Tyr-731 and Tyr-742 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-720 and Tyr-754 is important for interaction with PTPN11. Phosphorylation at Tyr-762 is important for interaction with CRK. Phosphorylation at Tyr-572 and Tyr-574 is important for interaction with SRC and SRC family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr-988 and Tyr-1018 is important for interaction with PLCG1.
Involvement in disease: Note=A chromosomal aberration involving PDGFRA is found in some cases of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Interstitial chromosomal deletion del(4)(q12q12) causes the fusion of FIP1L1 and PDGFRA (FIP1L1-PDGFRA). Mutations that cause overexpression and/or constitutive activation of PDGFRA may be a cause of hypereosinophilic syndrome.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) [MIM:606764]: Common mesenchymal neoplasms arising in the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the stomach. They are histologically, immunohistochemically, and genetically different from typical leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, and schwannomas. Most GISTs are composed of a fairly uniform population of spindle-shaped cells. Some tumors are dominated by epithelioid cells or contain a mixture of spindle and epithelioid morphologies. Primary GISTs in the gastrointestinal tract commonly metastasize in the omentum and mesenteries, often as multiple nodules. However, primary tumors may also occur outside of the gastrointestinal tract, in other intra-abdominal locations, especially in the omentum and mesentery. Note=The gene represented in this entry may be involved in disease pathogenesis. Mutations causing PDGFRA constitutive activation have been found in gastrointestinal stromal tumors lacking KIT mutations (PubMed:12522257).
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily.
Contains 5 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
General information above from UniProt