Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a transmembrane protein belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily, and contains an Ig-like domain followed by two potential membrane-spanning regions. MOG is expressed only in the CNS with very low content (approximately 0.1% total proteins) in oligodendrogliocyte membrane. Three possible functions for MOG were suggested: (a) a cellular adhesive molecule, (b) a regulator of oligodendrocyte microtubule stability, and (c) a mediator of interactions between myelin and the immune system, in particular, the complement cascade. A direct interaction might exist between the membrane-associated regions of MOG and the myelin-specific glycolipid galactocerebroside (Gal-C), and such an interaction may have important consequences regarding the membrane topology and function of both molecules. It is considered that MOG is an autoantigen capable to produce a demyelinating multiple sclerosis-like disease in experimental animals.