Gene Summary: MAPT encodes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) whose transcript undergoes complex, regulated alternative splicing, giving rise to several mRNA species. MAPT transcripts are differentially expressed in the nervous system, depending on stage of neuronal maturation and neuron type. MAPT gene mutations have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia, cortico-basal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]General information above from NCBI
Subunit structure: Interacts with PSMC2 through SQSTM1 (By similarity). Interacts with SQSTM1 when polyubiquitinated. Interacts with FKBP4 (By similarity). Binds to CSNK1D. Interacts with SGK1.
Domain: The tau/MAP repeat binds to tubulin. Type I isoforms contain 3 repeats while type II isoforms contain 4 repeats.
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm, cytosol. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell projection, axon. Note=Mostly found in the axons of neurons, in the cytosol and in association with plasma membrane components.
Tissue specificity: Expressed in neurons. Isoform PNS-tau is expressed in the peripheral nervous system while the others are expressed in the central nervous system.
Developmental stage: Four-repeat (type II) TAU/MAPT is expressed in an adult-specific manner and is not found in fetal brain, whereas three-repeat (type I) TAU/MAPT is found in both adult and fetal brain.
Post-translational: Phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues in S-P or T- P motifs by proline-directed protein kinases (PDPK1: CDK1, CDK5, GSK3, MAPK) (only 2-3 sites per protein in interphase, seven-fold increase in mitosis, and in the form associated with paired helical filaments (PHF-tau)), and at serine residues in K-X-G-S motifs by MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK1 or MARK2), causing detachment from microtubules, and their disassembly. Phosphorylation decreases with age. Phosphorylation within tau/MAP's repeat domain or in flanking regions seems to reduce tAU/MAP's interaction with, respectively, microtubules or plasma membrane components. Phosphorylation on Ser-610, Ser-622, Ser-641 and Ser-673 in several isoforms during mitosis. Phosphorylation at Ser-548 by GSK3B reduces ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. Phosphorylation at Ser-579 by BRSK1 and BRSK2 in neurons affects ability to bind microtubules and plays a role in neuron polarization. Phosphorylated at Ser-554, Ser-579, Ser-602, Ser-606 and Ser-669 by PHK. Phosphorylation at Ser-214 by SGK1 mediates microtubule depolymerization and neurite formation in hippocampal neurons. There is a reciprocal down-regulation of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation. Phosphorylation on Ser-717 completely abolishes the O-GlcNAcylation on this site, while phosphorylation on Ser-713 and Ser-721 reduces glycosylation by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. Phosphorylation on Ser-721 is reduced by about 41.5% by GlcNAcylation on Ser-717.
Polyubiquitinated. Requires functional TRAF6 and may provoke SQSTM1-dependent degradation by the proteasome (By similarity). PHF-tau can be modified by three different forms of polyubiquitination. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination is the major form, 'Lys-6'-linked and 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitination also occur.
O-glycosylated. O-GlcNAcylation content is around 8.2%. There is reciprocal down-regulation of phosphorylation and O- GlcNAcylation. Phosphorylation on Ser-717 completely abolishes the O-GlcNAcylation on this site, while phosphorylation on Ser-713 and Ser-721 reduces O-GlcNAcylation by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. O-GlcNAcylation on Ser-717 decreases the phosphorylation on Ser-721 by about 41.5%.
Glycation of PHF-tau, but not normal brain TAU/MAPT. Glycation is a non-enzymatic post-translational modification that involves a covalent linkage between a sugar and an amino group of a protein molecule forming ketoamine. Subsequent oxidation, fragmentation and/or cross-linking of ketoamine leads to the production of advanced glycation endproducts (AGES). Glycation may play a role in stabilizing PHF aggregation leading to tangle formation in AD.
Involvement in disease: Note=In Alzheimer disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brain is progressively disrupted and replaced by tangles of paired helical filaments (PHF) and straight filaments, mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of TAU (PHF-TAU or AD P- TAU). O-G
Sequence similarities: Contains 4 Tau/MAP repeats.
General information above from UniProt